Category Archives: Shorelines

Green crabs entrenched at Dungeness Spit, but new issues are emerging

Dungeness Spit on the Strait of Juan de Fuca near Sequim remains a hot spot for the invasive European green crab, which first showed up in Puget Sound during the fall of 2016.

This small male crab is one of the European green crabs caught last year in traps at Dungeness Spit.
Photo: Allen Pleus

The green crab, one of the most dreaded invasive species in the world, brings with it the potential to destroy shellfish beds and disrupt key habitats essential to native species in Puget Sound.

Thankfully, except for the Dungeness Spit, new findings of green crabs have been almost zero since a massive volunteer trapping effort resumed in April throughout most of Puget Sound.

I do have some additional news about green crabs to share, so please read on for a discussion of these topics:

  • Green crabs on Dungeness Spit
  • New findings on Whidbey Island
  • Where the crabs are NOT coming from
  • New efforts with Canada
  • First scientific paper on the green crab program
  • New assessment tool on the horizon

Green crabs on Dungeness Spit

So far this year, 42 of the invasive crabs have been found on Dungeness Spit, compared to 96 for all of last year, according to Lorenz Sollman, deputy project leader for the Washington Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Complex.

European green crabs have been found on Graveyard Spit, the small spit that juts off the main Dungeness Spit.

So far, nobody knows if the first crabs to arrive on the spit are reproducing or if the young ones being found there are new arrivals. Crabs can travel great distances through the water in larval form before they settle down and take on the familiar appearance of a full-grown crab.

“We don’t have any reason to think that they are not reproducing (at Dungeness),” said Emily Grason, Crab Team coordinator for Washington Sea Grant. The Crab Team is a group of volunteers and experts who monitor 54 trapping sites in the region.

Just this morning, Crab Team members found a new green crab at Dungeness Landing County Park, west of the Dungeness River and just outside the Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge.

“We’ve had our eye on that site, since it’s so close to the Dungeness Spit and assumed it was only a matter of time before one showed up there,” Emilly wrote me in an email.

Meanwhile, in Makah Bay just outside the Strait of Juan de Fuca in the Pacific Ocean, nearly 400 crabs have been captured in an intensive trapping effort this year alone. The first crab was spotted in the bay last fall. Matthew Nash of the Olympic Peninsula News Group updated the situation this week — although it is Makah Bay, not Neah Bay. The latter, which is technically inside Puget Sound, has not been found to have any green crabs.

New findings on Whidbey Island

At the beginning of this month, one of the most intensive trapping programs yet in Puget Sound was conducted over three days at Lagoon Point on Whidbey Island, where two green crabs were caught on different days last year. Working in deep sticky mud, only one green crab was caught in the enclosed lagoon during the latest effort.

Crab Team leaders Sean McDonald, Kelly Martin and Emily Grason following their three-day trapping effort on Whidbey Island.

“While we might have been happier not to catch any green crab, we are certainly glad that we only found one,” wrote Kelly Martin for the Crab Team Blog. Kelly, the newest member of the Crab Team management group, goes on to talk about the trapping adventure — including her accidental sit-down in the mud.

In a previous blog post, Kelly, who is a graduate student at the University of Washington, introduced herself to readers and talked about her background.

Where the crabs are NOT coming from

It has been suspected that the European green crabs found at Dungeness Spit as well as those on San Juan Island and Padilla Bay may have originated from Sooke Inlet at the southern tip of Vancouver Island, where a large infestation of green crabs has become well established.

After all, Sooke Inlet is physically close to areas in Puget Sound where green crabs have been found, at least when compared to infested areas along the coast. Although a large channel separates the U.S. from Canada, that might not be much of an obstacle for crab larvae, which drift with the currents.

To the surprise of many, a research project involving crab DNA showed that the green crabs in Puget Sound were NOT closely related to those in Sooke. Instead, the crabs at Dungeness Spit came from coastal populations, according to genomics work by Carolyn Tepolt of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The Sooke population is considered genetically isolated and very different, probably because it started some time ago by a small number of crabs that did not mix with others.

Lagoon Point, Whidbey Island: Blue dots are minnow traps; orange dots are larger fukui traps; large orange circles are where two European green crabs were found last year; and the yellow circle is where the one crab was found this year. // Map: Crab Team

At the same time, studies of the tidal currents in the area showed that Sooke was no more likely to be a source of crab larvae than coastal areas. Crab larvae coming from Sooke are likely to be swept toward the ocean, whereas rare conditions called “reversals” can bring larvae from the Washington Coast along the southern shore of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, according to a study by Elizabeth Brasseale, a graduate student in oceanography at the University of Washington. See the Crab Blog from April 25.

New efforts with Canada

Knowing that Sooke is not the source of the green crabs in Puget Sound changes the dynamic with Canada.

“It was a relief to find out that crabs (from British Columbia) were not inundating our shores,” Emily Grason told me. “If that had been the case, the necessary management action would be to throw everything at Sooke Basin.”

The cost of eradicating green crabs from Sooke would be enormous and probably would not help the situation in the U.S. On the other hand, the Canadians may learn some things from the extensive trapping program taking place in Puget Sound, which seems to be keeping the crab population in check. Sooke may be somewhat of a lost cause, but there could be hope for other B.C. inlets at risk of being invaded.

A cross-boundary task force has been discussing the green crab problem on both sides of the border. Meanwhile, an expert panel at April’s Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference discussed the pros and cons of international cooperation as well as political realities of dealing with the problem. Kelly Martin summarized that session for the Crab Blog on April 27.

First scientific paper on the green crab effort

The first publication addressing Puget Sound’s European green crab invasion documents the early stages of a horrific invasive species while celebrating the collaborations of hundreds of people making detection and control possible, according to Emily. Allen Pleus, coordinator of Washington’s Aquatic Invasive Species Program.

“If you are familiar with Crab Team, you might wonder why this scientific paper, which only covers the findings through the end of 2016, is important,” Emily Allen wrote in the Crab Team Blog. “We have certainly been sharing news about findings through our blog, the media and other outlets.

“So, what does this publication add?” she asked. “This paper will help scientists track how European green crab has spread across the globe. Because of the rigorous review conducted on the paper by multiple experts – and believe me, it was rigorous – the information can be used to inform policy and management of this species, both here, and in other locations.”

As with most scientific papers, the information shared with the world lags behind current events, yet it reaches a depth of information that will be most helpful for those working with European green crabs, invasive species and related subjects.

Here’s the paper: “Citizen science program detects range expansion of the globallyinvasive European green crab in Washington State (USA)” (PDF 1.4 mb) in the publication “Management of Biological Invasions”

New assessment tool on the horizon

Although trapping European green crabs has been effective at locating the early stages of an invasion in Puget Sound, imagine instead taking a water sample and sending it to a lab. After a short wait, a technician using DNA techniques would tell you the likelihood of finding crabs in that location.

This is the ultimate test that I’m imagining as a new effort gets underway to identify invasive species by looking for DNA floating in the water. The technique is known as environmental DNA testing, or simply eDNA, and it is increasingly being used in freshwater to look for the presence of species of interest.

Developing a technique for saltwater adds the complexity of tides and currents moving DNA around, chemical breakdown of DNA, and determining if the DNA signal is coming from the larval form of a species or reproductive adults.

Alison Watts, an environmental engineer at the University of New Hampshire, has received a two-year, $500,000 grant to study eDNA in marine estuaries. She is collaborating with researchers at sample sites in Oregon, Maine and New Hampshire. The idea is to use eDNA techniques alongside traditional methods of biological sampling, such as seining, trapping and electrofishing.

The eDNA samples undergo both “meta-barcoding,” which can identify DNA from multiple species in a single sample, and single-species PCR amplification, which is designed to test for the presence or absence of a target species, Alison told me.

The eDNA techniques might provide an early warning of green crabs — say in South Puget Sound, where they have not been found before — but it would not provide information about the number of crabs or their physical conditions.

“We are developing and testing the methods this summer, then will validate and develop guidance materials next summer,” she said in an email. “Once the initial methods are developed, it is our hope that they will be useful for a range of applications, including early detection of green crabs or identifying their range within a system.”

For information about the grant, check out:

New bridges provide improved habitat in two Kitsap County creeks

Contractors are putting the final touches on two new bridges in Kitsap County, both of which are expected to improve the local environment.

A new bridge over the Carpenter Creek Estuary near Kingston helps to restore the upper salt marsh.
Photo; Stillwaters Environmental Center

One is a 150-foot bridge that crosses the Carpenter Creek Estuary on West Kingston Road near Kingston. The other is a 50-foot bridge that crosses Big Anderson Creek on Seabeck-Holly Road near Holly.

Among local residents, the Carpenter Creek bridge may best be known as the bridge that blocked traffic and forced a detour near Kingston for more than a year — much longer than originally planned. (Recall reporter Nathan Pilling’s story in the Kitsap Sun.) While contract issues remain in dispute, the environmental benefits are clear, according to Joleen Palmer of the nearby Stillwaters Environmental Center.

The old roadway across the estuary acted like a dam to impede flows upstream and downstream.
Photo: Stillwaters Environmental Center

Replacement of a 5-foot culvert with the bridge over the estuary has obvious benefits for salmon that must fight the current to go upstream to spawn, Joleen told me, but people may not appreciate the importance of the much-expanded salt marsh.

When the roadbed was installed nearly a century ago, it formed a dam, causing water in the stream to back up, which encouraged freshwater vegetation. The saltwater influence was greatly reduced, and critical nutrients coming downstream were deposited before they reached Puget Sound.

The new bridge will allow saltwater to come and go with the tides and for nutrients to flow out more freely. Juvenile salmon coming downstream can pause to grow and acclimate to the saltier conditions they will face.

Salt marshes, which were filled in all too often years ago, are considered highly productive, because dead organic material — detritus — from the stream and estuary feeds bacteria, insects, worms and a multitude of other tiny creatures at the base of the food web.

“Salt marshes are really detritus-based ecosystems,” Joleen said. “You have many invertebrates that eat the detritus and other decomposers. The food sources reach out into the estuary and nearshore habitat to fuel the marine food web. It is not insignificant that the area is now opened up.”

Side channels in the marsh will provide refuge for young fish to grow before they head out to sea. To varying extents, the stream, marsh and estuary are expected to support coho, chinook and chum salmon along with steelhead and cutthroat trout.

Volunteers and students have been monitoring conditions in the watershed to measure the changes taking place. The latest addition to the monitoring effort is an ongoing search for the invasive European green crab. The volunteer program, called the Crab Team, is managed by Washington Sea Grant.

“The estuary is still some distance from known populations of invasive European green crab,” writes Cindi Nevins, a North Kitsap resident who joined the team, “but if the green crabs ever do arrive at Carpenter Creek, they will find exactly the kind of space they love: salt marsh channels, marsh vegetation and quiet lagoon-like waters. Why do we think they’ll love it? Because hairy shore crabs (Hemigrapsus oregonensis) do!”

Throughout Puget Sound, Crab Team members catch and identify hundreds of thousands of crabs in marsh habitat suitable for both the natives and the invaders. The volunteers hope never to catch a green crab, but some green crabs have been found in a few places in Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. By intensifying the trapping effort, the Crab Team hopes to eradicate the invaders, or at least keep them under control.

Cindi’s report, published in the Crab Team’s newsletter, goes on to describe the challenge of catching crabs in the Carpenter Creek marsh, which often drains completely at low tide. Because the traps must be kept submerged to be effective, the volunteers are often forced to set the traps in the evening as the tide comes in and retrieve them early the next morning before the tide goes out.

To celebrate completion of the new bridge, everyone is invited to celebrate “Estuary Restoration Day” on Saturday, June 9, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. at Stillwaters Environmental Center, 26059 Barber Cut Off Road, Kingston.

The program will include guided tours to the marsh, live music, food and a native plant sale. Those involved with various aspects of the project will receive special recognition.

For information and videos about the marsh, visit the Stillwaters website.

The new bridge over Big Anderson Creek near Holly is nearly twice as long as the old one.
Photo: Christopher Dunagan

The bridge over Big Anderson Creek near Holly is more of a highway-safety project than an ecosystem-restoration effort. The wooden bridge, 67 years old, was the last bridge in Kitsap County to be rated structurally deficient because of its overall poor condition. Check out the story in the Kitsap Sun by reporter Ed Friedrich.

Still, the new concrete bridge, which spans 50 feet of stream, is nearly twice as long as the old bridge. That will allow the stream to meander more naturally and at a rate that sandbars can form nearby. At high flows, the stream won’t be squeezed as much through the space under the bridge.

The old wooden bridge over Big Anderson Creek was rated structurally deficient by inspectors.
Photo: Kitsap County Public Works

By the way, the official name of the stream is “Anderson Creek,” allowing confusion with two other streams named “Anderson” in Kitsap County alone. I prefer to call it “Big Anderson,” in conformance to tradition by area residents and local institutions. For a further explanation of the issue, read Water Ways, June 22, 2017.

Unusual ‘high tide or low tide’ spider named for songwriter Bob Marley

A team of researchers in Australia has discovered a remarkable spider that has adapted to life at the edge of the ocean.

When the tide is out, the spider roams about the beach hunting tiny invertebrates. But when the tide is in, the spider retreats to underwater sanctuaries in barnacle shells or in tiny spaces among corals, rocks or kelp. To breathe, the spider builds air pockets out of silk.

The newly named Bob Marley’s Intertidal Spider, Desis bobmarleyi. // Photo: R. Raven

The researchers, associated with Queensland Museum and the University of Hamburg, named the newly discovered species Desis bobmarleyi for the late Jamaican singer-songwriter Bob Marley. They were inspired by the song “High Tide or Low Tide,” a lesser-known Bob Marley piece that seems to be cherished by his greatest fans. (Listen in the video below.)

“The song ‘High Tide or Low Tide’ promotes love and friendship through all struggles of life,” wrote the researchers — Barbara Baehr, Robert Raven and Danilo Harms — in an introduction to their paper published in journal Evolutionary Systematics. “It is his music that aided a field trip to Port Douglas in coastal Queensland, Australia, to collect spiders with a highly unique biology.”

It isn’t often that one sees a research paper that delays talking about the science to discuss history and inspiration. In this paper, the team honored not just one person but two. The opening paragraphs of the introduction to the paper need no explanation:

“When Amalie Dietrich travelled from Europe to Australia in 1863, she not only attempted to collect animals and plants for the museum trade, but also sought independence and liberty. A strong-headed and adventurous women by nature, she seized new opportunities and took risks on a then-unexplored continent to elevate herself from poverty and oppression.

“Her life story is that of adventure and also life’s struggles and how to overcome them. The Godeffroy Collection of arachnids, accumulated by her and other explorers over a decade in Australia and the Pacific before the turn of the 20th century, is the primary taxonomic reference for spiders of Australasia and remains highly relevant until today.

“Reggae legend Bob Marley certainly had a different background but shared with Dietrich and other explorers some character traits: adventurous and resilient at heart, he liberated himself and his peers from poverty and hopelessness. He took to music, not nature, but left traces through songs that teach optimism and independence of the mind, rather than hate and passive endurance.”

As for the newly discovered species of spider, the researchers propose the common name “Bob Marley’s Intertidal Spider.” The species belongs in the genus Desis, a group of spiders that are truly marine in nature, having broken ranks with an overwhelming number of terrestrial spiders.

The Godeffroy Collection of spiders is maintained by the Centre of Natural History in Hamburg and contains nearly all of the spiders collected by Amalie Dietrich in her early exploration of Australia. German arachnologists Ludwig Koch and Duke Eduard von Keyserling described the taxonomy of those unusual marine spiders along with other marine spiders collected from Singapore, New Guinea and Sāmoa.

This latest paper revisits intertidal species of Desis by re-examining the Godeffroy Collection, while describing the new species named after Bob Marley. The researchers found two of the newly named spiders on brain coral during an extremely low tide. The reef where they were found often lies under more than 3 feet of water.

The range and distribution of the Bob Marley’s spiders remains unknown, but they have been found in several intertidal zones along the Great Barrier Reef.

Along with the new species, two closely related species of spiders that occupy the “high-tide-or-low-tide habitat” were brought out, examined and described anew.

“Both species have been preserved for more than a century but not been studied in detail since their discovery,” the researchers wrote. “By doing so, we honour those that emancipate themselves from oppression, mental or organisational, and seek freedom and independence.”

Waterfront property owners face options in response to sea-level rise

Rising sea levels and isolated floods will be an increasing challenge for waterfront property owners, according to experts I interviewed for a story published this week in the Encyclopedia of Puget Sound.

The Vechey home and bulkhead before the big move. // Photo: John Vechey

Changing conditions call for property owners to consider their options with regard to their shoreline — not just for today but for the long run. What I learned while researching this story is that every waterfront site will respond differently as the highest tides go higher and higher.

Before I started my inquiry, I thought the obvious answer would be for people to build taller and stronger bulkheads — despite well-known environmental damage. And that may be the only answer for some. But for others, that approach could be a waste of money, as bigger walls degrade the owners’ enjoyment of the beach as well disrupting natural systems. Alternatives include moving or raising a house or even replacing a bulkhead with “soft shore” protections.

After the home was moved back from shore and the bulkhead removed. // Photo: John Vechey

Sea levels in Puget Sound are rising slowly at this time, with the actual rate dependent on location. We live in a tectonically active area, with major movements along continental plates. As a result, the ground is sinking in most areas around Puget Sound, adding to the relative rise in sea level.

In Seattle, the sea level has risen about 9 inches since 1900 and is expected to rise an additional 4 to 56 inches (4.75 feet) by 2100. The uncertainty reflected in that range relates to whether greenhouse gases continue to increase, thus accelerating the rate of melting of land-based ice in the polar regions.

Some changes can be expected regardless of the human response over the next 80 years. For example, one analysis looking at Whidbey Island suggests that there is a 99 percent chance that by 2040 — just 13 23 years from now — sea level will be at least 2.4 inches higher than today with a 50 percent chance that it will be 7.2 inches higher. After 2040, the tides will keep rising even faster. Take a look at the related story “Average high tides are creeping higher in Puget Sound.”

John Vechey of Orcas Island, who I featured in my story, took sea level into account when deciding whether to remove his bulkhead while seeking to improve the beach for family activities and for the environment. His solution was to move his house and give the beach more room to function naturally.

Moving a house will not be the answer for everyone, but I can safely say that everyone should consider their long-term picture before making any investments that will last a lifetime — and that includes changes to the shoreline.

I believe it is generally possible, certainly with professional help, to calculate elevations for the house and any low spots on the property, add one to four feet above the current high-tide mark, and then consider tidal surge, which is the wave height caused by weather conditions. In some counties, professional help is available if you are considering whether to remove a bulkhead. Check out the “Shore Friendly” website and “Resources in Your Area.”

At this time, future sea levels do not enter into regulatory considerations about where a person can build a house. One problem is the uncertainty surrounding the amount that sea levels will actually rise. But some environmental advocates say it is time to require additional setbacks, not only to protect the environment as tides push back the natural beach but also to protect homeowners from future losses.

For some people, sea-level rise is a distant worry, but for others the threat is just around the corner. I was reading this morning about how high tides are already affecting Naval Station Norfolk. Check out “Rising Seas Are Flooding Virginia’s Naval Base, and There’s No Plan to Fix It” by Nicholas Kusnetz of Inside Climate News.

A new Government Accountability Office report, released yesterday, cites estimates of future property damage totaling between $4 billion and $6 billion per year in the U.S. as a result of sea-level rise and more frequent and intense storms. The report outlines the need for a coordinated federal response.

Sen. Maria Cantwell discusses the new GAO report and calls for better planning in the video below.

With caution, one can avoid the risk of illness when gathering shellfish

If you are planning to gather some shellfish to eat over Labor Day weekend — or anytime for that matter — state health officials urge you to follow the “three Cs” of shellfish — check, chill and cook.

The state’s Shellfish Safety Map shows areas open and closed to harvesting.
Map: Washington State Dept. of Health

At least 10 cases of an intestinal illness called vibriosis have been reported this year to the Washington State Department of Health, all resulting from people picking oysters themselves and eating them raw or undercooked. The disease is caused by a bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an organism that occurs naturally and thrives in warm temperatures.

“The shellfish industry follows special control measures during the summer months to keep people who choose to eat raw oysters from getting sick,” said Rick Porso, director of the Office of Environmental Health and Safety, in a news release. “For those who enjoy collecting and consuming their own shellfish, it’s important that they follow a few simple measures to stay healthy.”

The combination of warm weather, lack of rain and low tides all contribute to the growth of bacteria in oysters growing on the beach.

The state Department of Health uses the “three Cs” as a reminder for recreational shellfish harvesters as well as people who gather shellfish from their own beaches:

  • CHECK: Before heading to the beach, make sure that shellfish in the area are safe to eat. The Shellfish Safety Map, updated daily, will tell you where it is safe to gather shellfish. At the moment, many areas are closed because of paralytic shellfish poison produced by a type of plankton. Unlike Vibrio, PSP cannot be destroyed by cooking.
  • CHILL: Gather shellfish as the tide goes out, so they are not allowed to sit for long in the sun. Put them on ice immediately or get them into a refrigerator.
  • COOK: Cooking at 145 degrees F. for at least 15 seconds should destroy Vibrio bacteria, health officials say. It is not enough to cook them until their shells open.

Symptoms of vibriosis include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headache, fever and chills. The illness usually runs its course in two to three days. For information see “Vibriosis” on the Department of Health’s website.

Symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning usually begin with tingling of the lips and tongue, progressing to numbness in fingers and toes followed by loss of control over arms and legs and difficulty breathing. Nausea and vomiting may occur. PSP can be a life-threatening condition, so victims should seek medical help immediately. For information, see “Paralytic shellfish poison” on the Department of Health’s website.

Besides health advisories, the Shellfish Safety Map mentioned above also includes the water-quality classification, a link to shellfish seasons to determine whether a beach is legally open along with other information,

Lights could be creating problems for salmon, seabirds and more

Bright lights that affect the behavior of birds, fish and other wildlife are emerging as a significant environmental concern.

Endangered Hawaiian Petrel
Photo: B. Zaun, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Yesterday, for example, two environmental groups filed a lawsuit against the Hawai’i Department of Transportation for bright lights the agency controls at piers and airports. The groups say three species of seabirds on the Endangered Species List have been circling the lights until the birds drop from exhaustion, and some birds have died.

Meanwhile, in Lake Washington and the nearby Cedar River in King County, there is evidence that threatened chinook salmon are at greater risk from predators because of lights on the two floating bridges as well as industrial facilities in Renton.

In Florida, researchers have discovered that female turtles avoid coming ashore to lay their eggs where bright lights are present, and in Virginia salamanders have delayed their feeding efforts in the glare of lights.

The lawsuit in Hawaii was filed by lawyers for Earthjustice out of concern for three species of seabirds: Newell’s shearwater, a threatened species, and Hawaiian petrels and band-rumped storm petrels, both endangered species.

The Hawai’I Department of Transportation has failed to protect the birds, as required by the Endangered Species Act, according to the lawsuit filed on behalf of the Hui Ho‘omalu i Ka ‘Āina, Conservation Council and the Center for Biodiversity. Because the lighting is injuring and killing listed species, the state agency must obtain an incidental take permit and initiate actions to minimize harm, the lawsuit says. For details, see the complaint for declaratory and injunctive relief (PDF 1.4 mb).

Lights at airports and harbor facilities have been documented as the greatest source of injury and death to the seabirds, which migrate at night and become disoriented by the artificial lights, the complaint asserts. Some birds crash into buildings, while others end up on the ground where they may be struck by vehicles or eaten by predators.

Since the 1990s, the Newell’s shearwaters have declined by 94 percent and the Hawaiian petrels on the island of Kauai have dropped by 78 percent.

“Our ancestors depended on the ‘a‘o (Newell’s shearwater), ‘ua‘u (Hawaiian petrel) and ‘akē‘akē (band-rumped storm-petrel) to help locate schools of fish, to navigate from island to island and to know when the weather is changing,” Kauai fisherman Jeff Chandler was quoted as saying in a news release from Earthjustice.

According to the news release, the Department of Transportation dropped out of talks with state and federal wildlife agencies that are developing a habitat conservation plan to protect the seabirds. After Earthjustice filed a notice of intent to sue, the agency rejoined the talks.

“That’s a good start, but talk alone will do nothing to save these rare and important animals from extinction,” said Earthjustice attorney David Henkin. “It’s long past time for the department to take action, not only on Kauai, but everywhere in the state that its operations illegally kill seabirds.”

Lake Washington chinook

As for the lights on and around Lake Washington, I have not heard of any proposed lawsuits to protect the threatened Puget Sound chinook, but concerns continue to simmer.

Lights on the Highway 520 bridge
Photo: Washington Dept. of Transportation

Jason Mulvihill-Kuntz, salmon recovery manager for the Lake Washington/Cedar/Sammamish Watershed, told me that the next regional chapter of the chinook recovery plan will call for further study into the effects of lights on juvenile chinook migrating down the Cedar River and through Lake Washington.

“The technical folks have identified light as a potential emerging issue,” Jason said. “We don’t have a good handle on what the impacts are.”

Lights on Lake Washington may be creating a double whammy for young chinook, Jason said. First, the lights attract the fish, which slow down their migration to Puget Sound. Second, the lights keep them visible to predators at night, so the fish may be eaten 24 hours a day.

“Juvenile salmon don’t have a nighttime respite,” Jason said. “At least that’s the hypothesis.”

Nonnative predatory fish include bass, walleye and northern pike. Native predators include cutthroat trout and pike minnow. Predatory birds include the western grebe and great blue heron.

An updated chinook recovery plan for the Lake Washington region is under review and could be finalized this fall. Predation is getting some additional attention this time around, Jason said, and the issue of lights is something that needs more study.

Experts at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service have identified potential concerns with lighting along Lake Washington in a series of studies going back more than 10 years. It still isn’t clear, however, how much the known problems with predators are exacerbated by bright lights. That’s why more studies are needed.

Following complaints from residents of Laurelhurst near the Highway 520 bridge, the Washington Department of Transportation reduced the amount of illumination coming off that bridge, and further investigation is underway. Check out the King-5 News report below.

Other species

With regard to other species, lights are known to have a variety of effects. Reporter Sharon Guynup outlined the problems for birds, turtles, amphibians, mammals and even insects in a revealing story in National Geographic News, April 17, 2003.

A group of British researchers from the University of Exeter compiled a list of the known effects of light on various species while considering the role of artificial lighting. See “The ecological impacts of nighttime light pollution; a mechanistic appraisal” in Biological Reviews.

Amusing Monday: Amazing sand sculptures are but brief creations

Creativity, humanity and whimsy seem to be abundant qualities among the sand sculptors producing unique works of art at various competitions across the United States this year.

“Dance of the Undefined,” first place in the Hampton Beach Sand Sculpting Competition. Artist: Mélineige Beauregard, Montreal, Quebec. // Photo: Hampton Beach Facebook page

In June, the Hampton Beach Sand Sculpting Competition in New Hampshire celebrated its 17th anniversary by attracting more than a dozen professional artists, including at least five from Canada.

This year’s winner at Hampton Beach was Mélineige Beauregard from Montreal, Quebec. Her work in sand, titled “Dance of the Undefined,” shows a woman from the waist up with honeycomb arms stretched above her head. Mélineige explained that the piece represents how people are constantly changing in some ways while staying the same in others.

She considers art as a kind of spiritual experience, according her to bio on the Hampton Beach website.

“When my hands touch the material, when my heart opens to give life, when my head is illuminated by light, I become the co-creator of the universe,” she was quoted as saying. “An artist is one who spiritualizes matter. For me, art is a means of communication, a way to transmit the energy of life, to affirm its vastness and its beauty.”

Mélineige has won more than 30 individual awards in sand sculpting. In 2004, she teamed up with her father, renowned sculptor Guy Beauregard, to win the World Championship doubles competition. Last year, she was the winner at the Revere Beach International Sand Sculpting Festival in Massachusetts. See the article by Liz Vanderau in Boston University Today. A slideshow of the Hampton Beach sculptures was posted on YouTube by Ammoguy5. Winners were listed on the Hampton Beach website with photos on the Hampton Beach Facebook page.

“Soul Evolution,” first place in the Revere Beach International Sand Sculpting Frestival. Artist: Pavel Mylnikov, Moscow, Russia.
Photo: Revere Beach Facebook page

This year’s winner at the Revere Beach competition, July 21-23, was Pavel Mylnikov of Moscow, Russia. His sculpture, titled “Soul Evolution,” is an intricately carved piece with two masculine angels on a rocky outcropping. Artist-reporters Dan Doubleday and Meredith Corson-Doubleday of RevereTV do a nice job of explaining their craft in a series of videos. Below, I’ve linked to two videos focused on four sculptures in this year’s competition — including entries by Pavel and Mélineige:

The festivals at Hampton Beach and Revere Beach are listed among the top 10 sand-sculpting competitions in the United States, according to Coastal Living magazine. Also making the list is the SandSations Sandcastle Competition in Long Beach, Wash. (See Facebook for some random photos and a list of winners.)

Another great sand-sculpting festival was held this year on July 14 and 15 at Imperial Beach, California. NBC 7, San Diego put together a nice video of the top winners.

“Neptune’s Organ,” first place in the 2016 Virginia Beach International Sand Sculpting Championship. Artists: Meredith Corson Doubleday and Dan Doubleday, Florida.
Photo: Virginia Beach website

Still to come this year is the International Sand Sculpting Championship, Sept. 30 to Oct. 8 in Virginia Beach, Va. The event is part of the Virginia Beach Neptune Festival. More than 30 of the world’s top sculptors are scheduled to compete along with separate competitions for amateur sculptors.

Last year’s first-place winner in Virginia Beach was Mélineige Beauregard, mentioned above. The first-place in team competition was won by Meredith Corson Doubleday and Dan Doubleday, mentioned above as artist-reporters in the Revere Beach competition. Their sculpture, Neptune’s Organ, also took the Neptune’s Choice, Sculptors’ Choice and People’s Choice awards in the team division.

Winners from 2016 contest in Virgina Beach can be seen on the festival’s winners page.

After enjoying dozens of photos showing amazing sculptures, I can’t help but think about the fragility and temporary nature of these artworks. For all their beauty and intricacy, as well as the thoughts and emotions they inspire, these sculptures soon disappear, and the artists are left to prepare for their next fleeting creation.

Hood Canal property will compensate for Navy construction at Bangor

Hood Canal Coordinating Council has finally found some shoreline property to compensate for environmental damage from the Navy’s $448-million Explosives Handling Wharf at Bangor.

The shoreline of a 6.7-acre property to be used for mitigation of the Navy’s Explosives Handling Wharf at Bangor. // Photo: Hood Canal Coordinating Council

The 6.7 acres of waterfront property — located near Kitsap County’s Anderson Landing Preserve on Hood Canal — becomes the first saltwater mitigation site in Washington state under an in-lieu-fee mitigation program. The $275,000 purchase was approved Wednesday by the coordinating council, which manages the in-lieu-fee program.

The Navy itself is not a party to the transaction, having paid the coordinating council $6.9 million to handle all the freshwater and saltwater mitigation required for the wharf project — including managing the mitigation properties in perpetuity.

The coordinating council’s in-lieu-fee program, which is overseen by state and federal agencies, allows developers to pay a flat fee for their environmental damage instead of undertaking mitigation work themselves.

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Green crab invaders settle in on Dungeness Spit, Olympic Peninsula

An invasion of the European green crab, which started last summer in northern Puget Sound, appears to be continuing this spring with 16 green crabs caught in traps at one location on Dungeness Spit near Sequim.

European green crab
Photo: Gregory C. Jensen, UW

The new findings are not entirely unexpected, given that invasive green crabs have established a viable population in Sooke Inlet at the southern end of Vancouver Island in Canada. From there, young crab larvae can move with the currents until they settle and grow into adult crabs. Last summer and fall, green crabs were found on San Juan Island and in Padilla Bay.

The big concern now is that a growing population of invasive crabs could spread quickly to other parts of Puget Sound, causing damage to commercial shellfish beds and disrupting the Puget Sound ecosystem.

“It knocks the wind out of your sails for sure,” said Emily Grason when I asked how she felt about the latest discovery. “You feel kind of powerless, and you want to get out there and start doing things.”

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Harper Estuary project gets started following years of discussion

Excavation started today on a $1.3-million project to reshape and restore Harper Estuary in South Kitsap.

Work began today on access roads for the Harper Estuary restoration project. Photo: Doris Small, WDFW
Heavy equipment begins work today to build access roads for the Harper Estuary restoration project.
Photo: Doris Small, WDFW

It is a project that I’ve been discussing since 2001, when former Harper resident Chuck Hower first introduced me to the idea, a concept that he had been promoting with state and federal officials. (See Kitsap Sun, Feb. 2, 2001.)

Orion Marine Contractors was the successful bidder among six companies that offered bids on the project to remove much of the fill material placed in and around the estuary. The amount of soil to be removed is estimated at more than 15,000 cubic yards, or enough to fill roughly 1,000 dump trucks.

“The work will restore (the estuary) to levels conducive to marsh establishment,” said Doris Small of the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. The project will recover a spit, reconnect saltwater to an impounded wetland and remove a bulkhead and old “relic” road that impounds the wetland, she said.

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