Category Archives: Drinking water

Yearlong pumping test will help define aquifers across Kitsap Peninsula

An unprecedented yearlong pump test of a deep water well in Central Kitsap is expected to provide a wealth of new information about our underground water supplies.

Joel Purdy, hydrogeologist for Kitsap Public Utility District, checks the flow at Newberry Hill Well 2, which is being pumped at 1,000 gallons per minute for a full year. // Photo: Christopher Dunagan

The 900-foot-deep well, off Newberry Hill Road, will be pumped continuously for a year, drawing water at a rate of 1,000 gallons per minute. Drawdown effects of the high pumping rate will be measured in 56 other wells — including those operated by Silverdale Water District, Kitsap Public Utility District, the city of Bremerton, North Perry Water District, Naval Base Kitsap-Bangor and others.

The pump test is designed to better define the extent of aquifers throughout Central Kitsap while increasing the accuracy of a groundwater model developed to predict water supplies across the Kitsap Peninsula.

“This is going to be one of the best data-gathering tests,” said Joel Purdy, hydrogeologist for Kitsap Public Utility District. “Hydrogeologists dream of doing this kind of aquifer test.”

The test well, known as Newberry Hill Well 2, draws its water from the extensive Seabeck aquifer, which is recharged by rains falling on forestlands throughout the central-southwest portion of the Kitsap Peninsula. The pump test, which began July 16, will measure how quickly water can move through the ground by measuring how fast unused wells get drawn down during pumping and how fast they recover afterward.

Silverdale Water District has turned off all of its deep wells and is operating only two shallower wells near Spirit Ridge and Island Lake on the north side of Silverdale. Those wells are providing the extra water needed for people watering their lawns during the summer, said Morgan Johnson, general manager of the water district. Those two wells probably won’t be needed once the fall rains arrive.

During the winter, any excess water from the pumping test will be sent through Silverdale to the KPUD’s Vinland water system in North Kitsap, so all of the water will be used during the yearlong experiment.

Pumphouse and reservoir for Newberry Hill Well 2, the site of a test to measure the extent of the Seabeck aquifer. // Photo: Christopher Dunagan

After a month of constant pumping so far, some slight signs of a drawdown might be observed in a Silverdale well located about 1.7 miles away near Newberry Hill and Dickey roads, Joel told me. In theory, the level in that well should stabilize within three months.

“There is nothing surprising about this so far,” Joel said.

Across the Kitsap Peninsula, various aquifers are generally defined by horizontal layers containing sand and gravel, which can hold water and allow it to move relatively freely through that layer. The aquifers are separated from each other by horizontal layers of fine-grain clay and silt that do not transmit water as readily.

The Seabeck aquifer is believed to be connected to aquifers north and east of Silverdale, including Bainbridge Island. It also has a connection to the Manette Peninsula, served by the city of Bremerton and North Perry Water District. The pump test, which involves monitoring wells at various depths, should help determine how readily the water moves horizontally through the entire region, as well as how readily the water moves from one layer to another.

In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey completed development of a computer-based groundwater model that can be used to predict how much water is available in wells and streams, based on geological conditions and the amount of rain that falls in a given area. See Water Ways, March 12, 2016.

There are some indications that the USGS model over-estimates the rate that rainfall infiltrates into the ground and passes through the various aquifer levels, Joel said. By using the pump test for calibration, the model’s flow rate to deeper aquifers can be made more accurate.

The groundwater model is one tool used by experts to determine the effects of drilling a new well in a given area. Water must be available before the Washington Department of Ecology will issue a new water-rights certificate. Consideration must be given to any effects on nearby streamflows, which are maintained for salmon and other aquatic creatures.

The pump test is being conducted as a partnership between the KPUD and Silverdale Water District, which jointly operate the test well under a recently signed agreement. The partnership hired Aspect Consulting of Bainbridge Island to predict the outcome of the pump test based on the USGS groundwater model. Aspect will analyze the data from the test and prepare a report with recommendations once the test is complete next summer.

Newberry Hill Well 2 was drilled 18 years ago, but it has never been operated as a full-time production well. A joint agreement between the water district and KPUD allows each water purveyor to take an equal amount of water, up to 500 gallons per minute. The well can be used to supplement existing water supplies in the Silverdale area, and the KPUD has authority to move the water through Silverdale to North Kitsap, thanks to pipelines connecting the various water systems.

It is all part of a long-range plan, Morgan Johnson said.

“People have been asking, ‘Why are you building large pipelines from Silverdale to the rural areas? You are promoting growth,’” Morgan said. “I tell them, ‘No, we are not promoting growth; we are planning to bring the water to the development.”

The goal, established years ago by Kitsap County, the KPUD and regional water systems, has been to concentrate new development in urban areas and protect the environment in rural areas, as called for by the state’s Growth Management Act. With that in mind, water can be moved from the outlying forested areas by way of the aquifers themselves or through pipelines. By managing the water carefully, population growth can be accommodated for the foreseeable future.

The yearlong test will provide important information about the capacity and extent of the aquifers. That will help water managers ensure an ongoing supply for humans as well as fish and wildlife.

Drought continues with fear of fire throughout Western Washington

Severe drought is settling in across most of Western Washington — including Kitsap County — where dry conditions raise the risks of wildfire, and low streamflows could impair salmon spawning this fall.

Western Washington is one of the few places in the country with “severe” drought.
Map: U.S. Drought Monitor, Richard Tinker, U.S. agencies.

Scattered showers and drizzle the past few days have done little to reverse a drying trend as we go into what is normally the driest period of the year, from now through August. As of today, the fire danger is moderate, but warmer weather could increase the risk substantially within a day or two.

The topsy-turvy weather that I observed across the Kitsap Peninsula last quarter (Water Ways, April 2) continued through June. Normally, the southwest corner of the peninsula near Holly receives twice the precipitation as the north end near Hansville. But that didn’t happen last month, when the monthly rainfall total was 0.61 inches in Holly and 0.83 inches in Hansville. Silverdale, about halfway between, received 1.11 inches in June.

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Unnamed stream could be named LeCuyer Creek for KPUD hydrologist

UPDATE, MAY 31
The name LeCuyer Creek was approved yesterday by the Washington State Committee on Geographic Names. The name change now goes to the state Board of Natural Resources, which sits as the state Board of Geographic Names. Action is normally a formality. The name, which will be recognized for state business, will be forwarded to the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, which is likely to adopt it for federal actions as well.
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The late Jim LeCuyer, who developed a system of monitoring rainfall, streamflow and groundwater levels in Kitsap County, could be memorialized next week when a stream near Kingston is officially named LeCuyer Creek.

Jim LeCuyer

The state’s Committee on Geographic Names will meet Tuesday Thursday to consider the proposed stream name in honor of LeCuyer, who died in 2012 from a blood disorder.

Jim, who joined the Kitsap Public Utility District in 1984, came to understand the water cycle on the Kitsap Peninsula perhaps better than anyone else. When Jim took the job, one of the looming questions for government officials was whether the peninsula would have enough water to serve the massive influx of people who were coming to Kitsap County.

“Jim started doing hydrological monitoring about 1991,” said Mark Morgan, KPUD’s water resources manager who proposed the name LeCuyer Creek. “What he developed became one of the best monitoring systems in the state, some say on the West Coast.”

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Amusing Monday: Bill Gates talks toilets again

Microsoft founder Bill Gates remains obsessed with human waste — in a good way, of course. His goal is to improve sanitation throughout the world and thereby reduce suffering from disease.

Poop is a subject that never goes out of style with comedians, and Ronny Chieng of “The Daily Show with Trevor Noah” is right on top of the subject. In a conversation with Bill Gates, shown in the first video, Chieng demands to know why Gates has been carrying around a jar of human feces.

“Toilets are something that we take for granted,” Gates responds, “but billions of people don’t have them.”

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is funding a major campaign to get engineers and other smart people to design a small-scale treatment device that generates energy while producing useable water. It’s called the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge.

Ronnie Chieng is asking some good questions, but I’m not sure why he needs to blurt out a bunch of four-letter words, when five-letter words like “waste” and “feces” work quite well.

“We’ve put several hundred million into this to show it can be done,” Bill says.

“Several hundred million dollars?” Ronnie responds. “Oh my god, is Bill Gates literally flushing his fortune down the toilet?”

Those who have been following Bill Gates’ efforts for a few years won’t be surprised at his desire to improve sanitation in places around the world where flush toilets are just a pipe dream.

Last month, Gates carried a jar of human feces onto the stage with him in Beijing where he addressed an audience at the Reinvented Toilet Expo.

“This small amount of feces could contain as many as 200 trillion rotavirus cells, 20 billion shigella bacteria and 100,000 parasitic worm eggs,” Gates said, as quoted by National Public Radio. His prepared speech can be found on the website of the Gates Foundation, along with a press release.

About 20 exhibitors were able to show off their inventions, including household toilets capable of internally processing small amounts of waste as well as commercial-sized treatment plants that turn waste into drinking water, electricity and ash.

Sedron Technologies, based in Sedro Woolley, is working at both ends of the spectrum. On the larger scale, its Janicki Omni Processor dries out solid waste and uses it as fuel. On the smaller scale, its new Firelight Toilet was just unveiled at the recent expo and explained in a news story by reporter Julia-Grace Sanders of the Skagit Valley Herald.

Gates discusses what he calls “clever toilet” technologies in the second and third videos on this page. In addition to NPR, the Expo was covered by Popular Science and The Hindu, which localizes the story for its audience in India where sanitation is a monstrous issue.

As I said, Bill Gates has been obsessed with this issue for quite awhile. In 2015, I featured a video about the “ultimate taste test” using sewage effluent. The tasters were Gates and Jimmy Fallon of “The Tonight Show.” See Water Ways, Feb. 9, 2015.

Amusing Monday: What would your day be like without water?

Wednesday of this week is a national day of action in which people are asked to “Imagine a Day Without Water.” The annual event was launched in 2015 to increase appreciation for the water we enjoy in our everyday lives.

It’s a serious subject, but one that can be approached with a sense of humor, as you can see from the videos I’ve tracked down.

In the event’s initial year, participants included nearly 200 organizations, from water and wastewater providers to public officials, business leaders, environmental organizations, schools and more.

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Ongoing lack of rainfall raises concerns for chum, coho salmon

We’ve just gone through one of the driest five-month periods on record in Kitsap County, yet the total precipitation for entire water year was fairly close to average.

Water year 2018, which ended Sunday, offers a superb example of the extreme differences in precipitation from one part of the Kitsap Peninsula to another:

  • In Hansville — at the north end of the peninsula — the total rainfall for the year reached 35.2 inches, about 3.5 inches above average.
  • In Silverdale — about midway from north to south — the total rainfall was recorded as 43.1 inches, about 5 inches below average.
  • In Holly — near the south end — the total rainfall came in at 82 inches, about 3.3 inches above average.

The graphs of precipitation for the three areas show how this year’s rainfall tracked with the average rainfall through the entire year. The orange line depicts accumulated rainfall for water year 2018, while the pink line represents the average. Click on the images to enlarge and get a better view.

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Dry weather started early this year amid cloudy conditions

UPDATE:
July 5. Greg Johnson, who lives in Hansville and manages the Skunk Bay Weather station there, said the unusually high rainfall in June for Hansville, compared to the rest of the peninsula, was the result of the Puget Sound convergence zone settling over the area on several occasions. Weather conditions brought localized squalls during the month, he said, adding, “This is very unusual for us.”

The reading at Greg’s weather station, 1.98 inches for the month of June, was somewhat lower than the 2.26 inches recorded at Kitsap PUD’s weather station in Hansville.
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Cool, often cloudy conditions have helped obscure the fact that very little rain has fallen on the Kitsap Peninsula over the past two months.

Precipitation in Holly (click to enlarge)

Now that we are in the fourth quarter of the water year, we can see that rainfall levels for this year will be close to average for most areas on the peninsula. What might not be recognized, however, is that April was well above average, while May and June were well below average.

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