All posts by Christopher Dunagan

Amusing Monday: Contest reveals amazing underwater photos

Exceptional patience, unusual skill and a certain degree of rapport with animals were all needed to capture a split image of swans above and below the water as they feed.

“Love Birds” by Grant Thomas, British Underwater Photographer of the Year
Photo: © Underwater Photographer of the Year Contest
Click on all images to enlarge

The picture by Grant Thomas won first place among British photographers in the annual Underwater Photographer of the Year contest. With more than 5,000 entries, the competition is becoming one of the most interesting photo contests in the world.

“I chose Loch Lomond as the location for this shot due to its idyllic scenery, water access and friendly swans,” said Thomas, who now lives in New Zealand. “My initial idea was to frame a split shot of one swan feeding below the surface. But when I noticed how comfortable they were around me, I was confident, with some patience, I could get that magical shot of the two.”

“The fisherman” by Filippo Borghi, winner in the “Behaviour” category
Photo: © Underwater Photographer of the Year Contest

Martin Edge, one of three judges in the contest, noted how this photograph impressed the judges more and more as they looked at it. The split between water and air forms a perfect curve at the traditional one-third line, with the scene punctuated by blue sky and puffy clouds, he said.

“The eyes have just enough base at the bottom of the frame to look into,” he added. “Like archways, the curved neck of both swans draws the eye even further into the frame.”

Out of the 5,000 images, 110 were called out for awards and featured in the 2018 UPY Yearbook (PDF 37.2 mb), which can be downloaded from the UPY website. A video presenting all the winners can be viewed at the bottom of this page.

“Seahorse Density” by Shane Gross, winner in the “Macro” category
Photo: © Underwater Photographer of the Year Contest

“I do not believe that you will find a better selection of underwater images anywhere else, either online, in magazines, books, journals or any other publication I can think of,” said Edge, who has published several of his own books on underwater photography. “In my opinion, this particular edition is a universal experience in superior underwater imagery.

“Since the conception of this competition four years ago, we have seen a number of groundbreaking techniques, which have inspired and encouraged other creative photographers to continue to push the boundaries,” he added.

“Black-Saddle Snake Eel” by Marchione dott. Giacomo, highly commended in the “Macro” category
Photo: © Underwater Photographer of the Year Contest

Speaking of pushing boundaries, the photograph judged to be the overall best in the contest this year is a composite panoramic photograph of a shipwreck by German photographer Tobias Friedrich. One can see amazing details on the cargo deck of the SS Thistlegorm, a British merchant ship sunk by German aircraft in World War II. Trucks carrying motorcycles remain as they were before the ship sank 77 years ago.

The image simply does not work on a small scale, so I’m not showing it on this page. But you can click and zoom in on the award-winning photograph titled “Cycle War.”

The winner in the “Behaviour” category is Filippo Borghi of Italy, who spent two days in shallow water near Osezaki, Japan, to get the shot of a cormorant with a sardine in its mouth.

“Breathtaking” by Tobias Friedrich, highly commended in the “Wide Angle” category
Photo: © Underwater Photographer of the Year Contest

Edge’s note to the photographer: “Filippo, this is one of my top four images in this year’s competition of UPY. Flawless in every way. Congratulations!”

A picture of three seahorses together in perfect profile was the winner in the “Macro” category. Photographer Shane Gross of Canada placed his off-camera strobe and flashlight on a small tripod behind the trio and waited for them to turn the right way, as the sun set and plankton began to rain down.

“Sand tiger shark” by Tanya Houppermans, winner in the “Portrait” category.
Photo: © Underwater Photographer of the Year Contest

One of my favorite photos among the winners is a “highly commended” image in the “Macro” category showing a black-saddle snake eel with a tiny shrimp on the end of its nose. I’ve been writing a lot lately about the Puget Sound food web, and I’ve learned that a key to successful energetics is the size of a predator compared to its prey. This miraculous photo, taken by Italian Marchione dott. Giacomo in Indonesia, captures in fine detail this sense of scale.

From a photo of a tiny shrimp, I’d like to jump to a “highly commended” shot of a killer whale in the “Wide Angle” category. The picture was taken near Skjervoya, Norway, by Tobia Friedrich, the same photographer who revealed the shipwreck Thistlegorm. He noticed a pod of killer whales circling a net filled with herring and used a 8-15 mm fisheye lens to provide a mystical feeling.

“Evening Snorkel” by Brook Peterson, third in the “Wide Angle” category
Photo: © Underwater Photographer of the Year Contest

“This is an image that transports you to a wondrous moment in an extreme location,” said contest judge Alex Mustard. “Tobi had the inspiration not only to shoot the orca, but to also tell the bigger story with the snow-covered mountains surrounding the fjord.”

The winner in the “Portrait” category showed a sand tiger shark in the midst of a “ball” of bait fish near the wreck of the Caribsea off North Carolina. U.S. photographer Tanya Houppermans laid on her back and aimed her camera upward until the fish parted and she got a clear shot of the shark’s white underbelly.

In another engaging photo by a U.S. photographer, multiple elements — colorful coral, intense sunset and human silhouettes — were all put into a single frame by Brook Peterson. The image, which took third place in “Wide Angle,” was captured in Egypt’s Red Sea.

“Cooking Sausage” by Pekka Tuuri, highly commended in the “Wide Angle” category
Photo: © Underwater Photographer of the Year Contest

“This lovely sunset split shot is enhanced with the other snorkelers on the pier,” wrote judge Martin Edge. “Most of us would have avoided them, but Brook had other intentions, which made for a dynamic different image.”

A whimsical image of an underwater campfire — fire under ice — came “highly commended” by the judges in the “Wide Angle” category. Photographer Pekka Tuuri of Finland pulled together a bunch of props to create this picture. Dry ice was used to create bubbles, and a piece of orange gel over a dive light provided the proper color for the “fire.” Pieces of firewood were nailed together, and the sausage came from a local gas station near Kuortane , Finland, the site the frozen-over Kaatiala quarry.

One of the photographs surprised me as an optical illusion, although that was not mentioned in the notes on the photo. When I first looked at the image called “Battle of the Tompots” (click to view), I saw two owl-like eyes staring at me. It looked like the creature had a yellow beak and whispy feathers over both eyes. But this was actually two fish biting each other’s lips as part of a mating battle. The photo, by Henley Spiers, was the winner in the “British Waters Macro” category.

Orca protection bill stumbles and dies on state Senate floor

State legislation that would increase protection for Puget Sound’s killer whales died this week amidst confusing action on the Senate floor.

Now, orca advocates are pushing a narrower bill approved by the House to limit remote-controlled aircraft around whales, while they also hope for a $3-million budget appropriation to support other orca protection measures.

J pod, one of the three Southern Resident killer whale groups, has recently spent time in the San Juan Islands.
Photo: Dave Ellifrit, Center for Whale Research, taken under federal permits: NMFS:15569-01, DFO SARA: 388.

Whether people should be allowed to fly a drone around the endangered Southern Resident orcas seems to be the issue stirring up the most attention in the Legislature — although it is a small part of the overall effort.

Current law prohibits a “vessel or other object” from approaching the Southern Residents closer than 200 yards. Using that language, state fisheries enforcement officers have issued at least two citations to people flying their drones over orcas in the San Juan Islands, according to Sgt. Russ Mullins of Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

In one case filed in 2015, a Mercer Island photographer appealed the citation, saying the law does not apply to drones. The prosecutor in San Juan County eventually dropped the case while requesting a legal clarification from the state Attorney General’s Office.

The opinion from the AG’s Office says the 200-yard limitation for “other objects” should apply to drones flying over the killer whales. The final word, however, would need to come from a judge in a state court.

To eliminate any confusion, Rep. Kristine Lytton, D-Anacortes, last year introduced a bill that would prohibit “unmanned aerial systems” from approaching orcas closer than 200 yards in any direction. The one exception would be if the drone inadvertently flies over the whales while traveling to an unrelated destination. See info for HB 1031.

“My intention is to keep drones away from an icon of our state and to prevent the almost harassment, as some people in my district feel, of our orca whales,” Rep. Lytton testified after submitting her bill.

The concern is not so much about one or two drones, although any could crash and harm a whale, Sgt. Mullins told me. But if the rules do not keep drones away from the whales, it will be only a matter of time before lots and lots of whale watchers bring their drones out to photograph the orcas up close while watching from a boat.

“There is already enough drama and confusion out there,” he said. “We don’t need someone driving his boat as well as his drone around these whales.”

Some lawmakers, including Rep. Jeff Morris, D-Mount Vernon, said they would prefer to broaden the legislation to keep drones from operating around any threatened and endangered species. But no changes have been made so far, perhaps because the specific law being revised is focused entirely on the protection of killer whales.

The bill to protect orcas from drones passed the House last week on a vote of 67 to 31, with all Democrats in support of the legislation along with about a third of the House Republicans.

In the Senate, Democrats decided to take a broader approach to the issue of orca protection. Sen. Kevin Ranker, D-Orcas Island, introduced a bill to complement Gov. Jay Inslee’s proposed orca protection and restoration initiative.

The legislation, SB 6268, would more than double the number of marine patrols around the orcas, essentially protecting the animals from aggressive boaters and drone operators anytime the whales are in Puget Sound. Studies have shown that the mere presence of patrol boats leads to greater compliance with the rules, which are designed to allow the whales to find food more easily and to engage in more normal social interactions. The patrols also serve to educate boaters about how to act around the whales.

The cost for the nearly full-time patrols is estimated at about $475,000 per year. If the patrols help save the whales from extinction, it would allow a continuation of the multi-million-dollar tourism industry, not to mention the ecological importance of orcas and the joy that people experience when seeing whales.

Other provisions of the bill would require boaters to slow down to 7 knots anytime they come within 400 yards of a Southern Resident orca. Also included are proposed studies to see how human-generated noise affects the orcas, along with at least one meeting to better coordinate protection and recovery strategies between Washington state and British Columbia in Canada.

The Senate bill appeared to be sailing through the Legislature until Wednesday — the last day to approve bills that originated in the Senate. Democrats were anxious about approving two bills before the end of the day — one dealing with student debt and the other with basic education funding. They thought the so-called Orca Protection Act would be approved with barely a bump in the road.

The first amendment offered to the orca bill was the “ominously numbered amendment 666,” as Lt. Gov. Cyrus Habib dubbed it while calling on the amendment’s author, Sen. Jim Honeyford, R-Sunnyside. The hostile amendment would remove any prohibition against using drones around killer whales.

“The orcas are a really a big tourism attraction in the Puget Sound,” Honeyford told the chamber. “This would allow those tourists who have unmanned aircraft or drones or whatever you want to call them to be able to fly them. They are electric, and they are quiet, and they can take pictures. I believe it would be a great increase in tourism.”

With an eye toward the clock, the Democrats decided not to fight the amendment. They knew that the House bill was coming later to deal with drones, and they apparently hoped to get quick approval of the Orca Protection Act. After all, everyone was still speaking in favor of it.

As you can see in the video above, the Democrats were talking fast. But Republicans along with Sen. Tim Sheldon, a right-leaning Democrat from Hoodsport, appeared to be taking their time. Democrats finally gave up and pulled the bill, essentially killing it for this year.

The original bill to limit drones around the orcas, which originated in the House, is still alive after House passage. It is scheduled to be heard on Feb. 20 by the Senate Committee on Energy, Environment & Technology.

Some aspects of the Senate bill, such as the extra patrols around the orcas, could be implemented through the budget, according to Sen. Christine Rolfes, D-Bainbridge Island, who chairs the Senate Ways and Means Committee.

The House bill is titled, “Concerning the use of unmanned aerial systems near certain protected marine species.” That title does not leave much leeway to resuscitate the Senate bill by heavily amending the House bill, Sen. Rolfes told me.

Still, other efforts to protect the orcas could be accomplished with legislative funding of Gov. Inslee’s Southern Resident killer whale recovery program. He is seeking $3 million from the general fund for the next two years.

The governor’s proposal goes well beyond the idea of extra patrols around the whales. Included is increased hatchery production of chinook salmon, the orcas’ primary food; restoration of chinook salmon habitat in streams and estuaries; and steps to reduce seal and sea lion predation on chinook, which are also on the Endangered Species List.

Inslee’s budget proposal also calls for developing oil spill plans to help the orcas in an emergency, since many experts believe that an oil spill could drive the whales to extinction faster than any other problem they face.

“Funding orca recovery is an urgent issue that cannot wait another legislative session,” said Mindy Roberts, director of People for Puget Sound, a division of Washington Environmental Council. “Our region knows all too well the pressures the orcas face. They are starving because they don’t have enough salmon to feed on; toxics in their bodies are released when they go hungry; and vessels are interfering with their abilities to feed and communicate.”

As she told me in an email, “We will be looking for ways to provide emergency funding for short-term solutions identified in the bills that died and in the governor’s budget proposal.”

Amusing Monday: The secret to the midshipman’s song

Among the wonders of nature in Puget Sound is a chunky little fish with bulging eyes called a plainfin midshipman. The species includes two very different types of males, and one type tries to attract a mate by emitting a continuous humming sound for up to an hour before stopping.

An hour-long mating call is rather remarkable, considering that most animals use short intermittent bursts of sound followed by periods of rest. Until recently, scientists were not sure how the midshipman could keep its call going so long.

When large numbers of midshipman are calling at the same time, the effect can be disconcerting. Years ago, folks living near Quilcene on Hood Canal reported an eerie humming sound that kept them awake at night. Since Quilcene is located near the Navy’s acoustic-testing range on Dabob Bay, some speculated that the Navy was up to something.

Other people living along the shores of Puget Sound have reported the same strange humming sound from time to time. Midshipman appear to be the primary prey of bald eagles that congregate along Big Beef Creek near Seabeck each spring before the first salmon runs provide larger fish to eat. Do you remember the award-winning photo by Bonnie Block featured in the Kitsap Sun?

Plainfin midshipman caught in a beach seine off Bainbridge Island while surveying for surf smelt // Photo: U.S. Geological survey

Hums produced by Type-I males can be heard great distances underwater, all the better to attract mates in murky waters. The sound is created when the fish contracts and relaxes the muscles around its swimbladder, causing the gas-filled organ to vibrate.

The contractions in the midshipman are extremely rapid, up to 100 times per second, or some 360,000 times during an hour-long call, according to Lawrence C. Rome, professor of biology at the University of Pennsylvania who has published a new paper in the Journal of General Physiology.

“The midshipman swimbladder muscle generates more contractions per hour than any other known vertebrate muscle,” Rome commented in a news release from Rockefeller University Press.

Muscle contractions are triggered by the release of calcium ions into the muscle tissue. In other species, the calcium ions are pumped back into storage before the next contraction. But the speed of the contractions in the midshipman has forced researchers to look for another explanation. The secret turns out to be the tiny amount of calcium needed to cause a contraction — just one-eighth as much as in the Atlantic toadfish, a related species.

“The small amount of calcium released per stimulus is the key element that permits the calcium pumps in midshipman swimbladder muscle to keep up over long periods of high-frequency stimulation,” Rome said. “The combination of fast calcium pumping and small calcium release permits the midshipman to maintain the correct balance of calcium ions during its long-lasting mating call.”

One mystery still remains, he added. How do such low calcium levels cause the swimbladder to contract with enough force to generate the distinctive hum heard over great distances?

For a more detailed explanation of the physiology, review the news release or read the research paper (subscription required).

The name midshipman apparently comes from having a series of photophores — light=producing organs — along its sides used to attract prey. Someone apparently thought they looked like buttons on a naval uniform, according to an entry in Wikipedia.

Midshipman fish are nocturnal, swimming just above the seabed at night and burying themselves in the mud or sand during the day. When out of water, these unusual fish have the ability to breathe air.

While type-I males use sound to attract females, type-II males have a different reproductive strategy. Their sex organs are seven times larger than those of their type-I counterparts.

Kitsap streams getting generally cleaner, but storms have an effect

Kitsap County’s streams are getting generally cleaner when it comes to bacterial levels, according to an annual water-quality report issued by the Kitsap Public Health District. But streams can have good years and bad years — and 2017 was not so good.

Let’s compare the annual report for 2016 to the newly released report for 2017, both found on the health district’s website. Reporter Tad Sooter offered a nice overview of the new report in a Kitsap Sun story on Friday.

Graph: Kitsap Public Health District

Before getting to the findings, it’s important to understand that there are two bacterial water-quality standards that must be met for a stream to get a clean bill of health. The first part calls for an average of no more than 100 bacteria per 100 milliliters of water (or no more than 50 bacteria if the water body has been designated “extraordinary”). The second part states that, regardless of the average, no more than 10 percent of the samples taken can exceed 200 bacteria per 100 milliliters of water (or 100 bacteria for “extraordinary” water).

It came as a surprise to me that in water year 2017 a total of 23 streams — or 35 percent of the 66 streams sampled — failed both water-quality standards. That’s worse than in water year 2016, when 25 percent of the 64 streams on the list failed both standards. (A water year goes from Oct. 1 to Sept. 30 of the next year.)

One reason that water quality got worse in 2017 was that rainy weather at times was more conducive to washing bacteria into the streams, according to Shawn Ultican, a water-quality expert with the health district.

“Bacterial levels were higher in general than we have seen them in the past few years,” Shawn said of the 2017 data. “We had more intense rainfall at times. We don’t think that suddenly more pollution sources have become a problem.”

Similar patterns also were seen in 2009 and 2010, he said.

More streams were deemed clean in 2016 than 2017. In 2017, 21 streams — 32 percent — met both of the water-quality standards, compared to 30 streams — 47 percent — the year before.

For discussion, I took a look at reports in 2008, when 38 percent met both standards, and 2013, when 29 percent met both standards. So it really does vary from year to year. And whether a stream is considered clean or polluted depends on recent rainfall and other fleeting factors. Consequently, much depends on when a water sample is taken, which is why health officials choose their sampling dates randomly.

Because weather plays an important factor in the bacterial counts, health officials tend to focus on long-term trends rather than on the results of individual water samples. Trends result from a statistical exercise using data collected each month over many years. For most streams, sampling has been going on for 22 years.

If the bacterial counts stay relatively the same over many years, the health of the stream is listed as “stationary.” If the numbers show a statistical trend, a stream will be listed as “worsening” or “improving.”

In 2017, five streams were listed as worsening: Coulter Creek in South Kitsap; Lofall and Kinman creeks in North Kitsap; and Stavis Creek and the Tahuya River, which drain into Hood Canal. You might consider Stavis Creek and Tahuya River to be statistical anomalies, because they are so clean that it takes only a few additional bacteria to result in an unwelcome trend.

Stavis Creek met both part 1 and 2 of the water quality standards in 2017, while the Tahuya River failed part 2 because of a few high counts. In 2016, both streams met both water-quality standards, so health officials aren’t worried about either stream at this point.

In 2016, 21 streams were listed as improving, compared to 18 streams in 2017. Olalla, Wilson, Barker and Chico creeks are among those that went from improving to stationary. Barker and Chico creeks are pretty clean, meeting both parts of the water-quality standards.

Tad’s story in the Kitsap Sun includes an interactive map that provides the status of each stream in Kitsap County monitored by the health district.

Lofall Creek, which includes drainage from the community of Lofall as well as upstream areas, has been giving health officials fits for years. Bacterial counts are high and getting worse, despite successful efforts to eliminate sources of pollution, such as failing septic systems and pet wastes.

Special tests are planned to see whether pollution in the stream is coming from pets, birds or ruminants, such as cows and deer, according to Ian Rork, an environmental health specialist with the health district who is assigned the cleanup of Lofall Creek and nearby Kinman Creek.

Health officials have long suspected that raccoons may be a source of the pollution, but they have no strong evidence. Raccoons are known to deposit their wastes in communal areas. As new development takes over uplands, these small animals may be pushed into remaining vegetated areas along the streams.

Last year, Ian began a new effort to work closely with residents of the community to see if they could take steps to discourage raccoons and other wildlife from congregating near Lofall. Steps people can take include making sure animals don’t have access to garbage, keeping barbecue grills clean and avoiding the intentional feeding of raccoons.

“The local residents have been so gracious and good to work with,” Ian told me, adding that most people are committed to solving the problem if only there were a clear answer.

For the 2017 report, Lofall Creek remains the most polluted stream in the county, followed by Ostrich Bay Creek in Bremerton; Olalla Creek and Burley Creek, both in South Kitsap; and Kinman Creek and Vinland Creek, both in North Kitsap.

The cleanest streams are Dewatto Creek, followed by Anderson Creek, Stavis Creek, Seabeck Creek, Salmonberry Creek, Big Beef Creek and Wright Creek. All drain into Hood Canal, except Anderson and Wright creeks, which drain into Sinclair Inlet, and South Kitsap’s Salmonberry Creek.

Climate change is expected to bring more intensive rainstorms, but how that will affect long-term trends in water quality is yet to be seen.

Washington officials build state’s case against offshore oil drilling

If oil companies were secretly interested in drilling off the Washington coast — which is doubtful — then I suspect that state and tribal officials scared them off yesterday.

It’s one thing for an oil company to sign a lease with the federal government. It’s quite another thing to go up against other sovereign governments determined to use every means to make the venture unprofitable.

Participants in press conference, left to right: Attorney General Bob Ferguson; Gus Gates, Surfrider Foundation; Gina James, Quinault Nation; Larry Thevik, Dungeness Crab Fisherman’s Association; Gov. Jay Inslee; Commissioner of Public Lands Hilary Franz; Ocean Shores Mayor Crystal Dingler; and Chad Bowechop, Makah Tribe. (Click to enlarge)
Photo: Governor’s Office

In a press conference yesterday, Gov. Jay Inslee said the Legislature could pass laws that establish new taxes or limit the use of port facilities needed to service oil rigs.

“We could set up our own safety standards, for instance, that frankly the industry may not be able to meet,” Inslee said. “So, yes, we have multiple ways. Counties and cities would also have jurisdiction.

“What I’m saying is that when you have a policy from a president that is uniformly reviled in the state of Washington both by Republicans and Democrats, there are so many ways that we have to stop this — and we’re going to use all of them.”

The entire press conference is shown in the first video below.

In a two-page letter to Secretary of Interior Ryan Zinke, Inslee wrote, “I urge you in no uncertain terms to respect our local voices, our state’s laws, and our hard-working families by removing Washington’s coasts from any subsequent plan your department may propose to expand oil and gas leasing in this country.”

As Inslee prepared to take another question at the press conference, Public Lands Commissioner Hillary Franz, who oversees the state’s forests and aquatic lands, quickly wedged up to the microphone. She pointed out that Washington state has the authority to lease — or not — much of the deep-water areas in Puget Sound and along the coast, including areas used by local ports. The state would have a say over almost any infrastructure the industry might need to develop along the shore, she said.

In addition, the state has ownership over vast shellfish resources, Franz noted, and so state officials would have a clear interest to protect against any damage that might result.

Attorney General Bob Ferguson said if the leasing plan goes through, it would be challenged in court on many grounds. Just one example of a legal violation, he said, is the off-handed way that the Trump administration exempted the state of Florida from the leasing plan.

“It was completely arbitrary,” Ferguson said at the press conference. “It’s a classic example of how this administration rolls something out; they haven’t thought it through; and they take an action that we think will help make our case against it.”

Ferguson laid out his legal, moral and practical arguments against offshore drilling in a long five-page letter, which included this comment: “The proposal to open the Pacific Region Outer Continental Shelf to oil and gas leasing is unlawful, unsafe and harmful to the economy and natural beauty of Washington’s coastline. As Attorney General, my job is to enforce the law and protect the people, natural resources and environment of my state, and I will use every tool at my disposal to do so.”

Chad Bowechop, policy adviser and member of the Makah Tribe, explained that tribes have legal rights under the treaties to protect the environment in their native lands. He noted that the press conference was being held in the very room where legislation was signed to dispatch a rescue tug at Neah Bay. The bill was the result of oil spills that had damaged the natural and cultural resources of the area.

“We’re very proud of our working relationship with the state of Washington Department of Ecology Spills Program and with the United States Coast Guard,” he said. “Our basis of objection to this issue is based on our cultural and spiritual values. Our spiritual values hold the environment and the ocean resources in spiritual reverence.”

Drilling, he continued, would be in conflict with the tribe’s cultural and spiritual values. As a legal trustee of the ocean’s natural resources, the tribe “will pledge to work closely with the other resource trustees,” meaning the state and federal governments to prevent offshore oil drilling.

Early today, Washington Sen. Maria Cantwell appeared on the Senate floor to protest the oil-drilling proposal. She talked about the natural resource jobs that would be threatened by drilling activities. Check out the second video.

Now that Alaska Gov. Bill Walker has asked the Trump administration to dial back the offshore drilling proposal in his state, all the West Coast governors stand in opposition to the drilling plan. In a press release, Walker said he supports offshore drilling, but he wants Zinke to focus on the Chukchi and Beaufort seas along with Cook Inlet.

“I support removal of potential sales in all other Alaska waters for the 2019 to 2024 program,” he said, “and I will encourage the Interior Department to include the longstanding exclusions for the Kaktovik Whaling Area, Barrow Whaling Area, and the 25-mile coastal buffer in upcoming official state comments on the program.”

Alaska’s congressional delegation, all Republicans, previously made the same request in a letter to Zinke. The members are Sens. Lisa Murkowski and Dan Sullivan and Rep. Don Young.

Except for three U.S. representatives, Washington’s and Oregon’s entire congressional delegations — four senators and 12 representatives — signed a joint letter to Zinke asking that both states be excluded from further leasing plans.

“The states of Washington and Oregon have made clear through local, state, and federal action, as well as extensive public comment, that oil and gas lease sales off the Pacific Coast are not in the best interest of our economies or environment,” the letter says. “The Department of the Interior’s proposal to consider drilling off the states we represent, absent stakeholder support and directly contradicting economic and environmental factors of the region, is a waste of time, government resources, and taxpayer dollars.”

The only Washington-Oregon lawmakers not signing the letter are Reps. Dan Newhouse and Cathy McMorris Rodgers, both Republicans representing nearly all of Eastern Washington, and Rep. Greg Walden, a Republican representing Eastern Oregon.

Amusing Monday: Plenty of Super Bowl ads show water in some role

It was easy to find water in this year’s Super Bowl commercials. In fact, some of the most entertaining ads featured water prominently, while others contained clear references to it. So I’m happy to continue the after-bowl tradition of reviewing commercials that people enjoyed during the big game.

One of my favorites was a pairing of fire and ice, a promotion of both a spicy new version of Doritos and a new lemon-lime variant of Mountain Dew, featuring Peter Dinklage and Morgan Freeman. Brian Steinberg of Variety magazine called the commercial “colorful and full of music and surprising raps.”

“That’s a tough order and sort of a challenge, but they found a clever way to do it,” said Ed Cotton of the independent ad agency Butler, Shine, Stern & Partners, as quoted in the Steinberg piece.

In general, Steinberg and other observers noted how advertisers this year seemed to shy away from politics and socially minded issues in favor of entertaining commercials about entertainment — that is, promotions for a lot of new movies and TV shows.

Margaret Johnson, chief creative officer for the agency Goodby, Silverstein & Partners, which created the Doritos-Mountain Dew ad, said she noticed a humanitarian theme this year and not so many women running around in bikinis, according to an article by Sapna Maheshwari in the New York Times.

“I was just thinking that one thing I haven’t seen are those ads that objectify women, which is refreshing,” Johnson was quoted as saying. “And guess what? There’s still funny stuff on the air. We’re making progress.”

One commercial with a strong water connection showed a cadre of Vikings towing their Ram truck across the ocean to get to the Super Bowl while singing “We Will Rock You.” They turn back when they find out who is playing in the game. The second video on this page is an extended version of the commercial you might have seen on television.

Many of the commercials viewed yesterday actually hit the Internet before the Super Bowl. In the month leading up to the game, the one that got the most hits featured Budweiser water, according to Business Insider magazine. The notes on the company’s YouTube video said Budweiser employees helped provide 79 million cans of water to people affected by natural disasters across the United States since 1988.

The second-most watched commercial before the game was a promotion for a movie called “Dundee” that nobody will ever see, because this series of ads is strictly an effort to get people to visit Australia. Three ads feature characters who might work well together to create an exciting movie. The titles are “Dundee — Official cast intro trailer,” “Dundee — Water Buffalo,” and “Dundee — The Son Of A Legend Returns Home.

But for all the promise of glory, the true nature of the visit is revealed in the amusing final video on the homepage of Tourism Australia.

One low-key commercial focuses on the true value of water. I’m not sure how well the message came through during the 30-second spot, but it’s another commercial in a long-running series by actor Matt Damon, cofounder of water.org. This organization helps to improve the health of people in third-world countries by providing permanent sources of drinking water.

This Super Bowl commercial encourages people to purchase a limited-edition glass with the logo of Stella Artois, a Belgian beer. The “chalices” were designed by female artists from three countries to reflect the different styles of Mexico, India and the Philippines. Check them out at water.org. According to the promotion, the $13 derived from each sale is enough to provide clean water for a variety of uses to one person for five years.

A funny commercial that has received little attention in the advertising media depicts some elderly folks still getting up to an alarm and going to work in a variety of occupations. The ad, by Etrade, encourages investment by younger people, so they won’t be tossed around by a firehose in their older years, as shown at the end of the piece. Tagline: “Over 1/3 of Americans have no retirement savings. This is getting old. Don’t get mad. Get Etrade.”

Another commercial I liked features water in a minor role, while no less than six celebrities toss out humorous lines. In “Alexa Loses Her Voice” — the Amazon commercial voted the best of the day in a USA Today survey — actress Rebel Wilson “sets the mood” while Alexa is out of service.

Michelob’s “I Like Beer” commercial features lots of people singing the drinking song, including one guy who somehow manages to sing underwater while swimming laps in a pool.

Bringing modern technology to an age-old pastime called fishing

Fishing, which I hear was fairly straightforward in days gone by, has grown more and more complicated in today’s modern world, with growing concerns about fish extinction, poaching and the protection of natural resources.

Technology cannot return us to a simpler time, but there is an event scheduled for next weekend that is designed to make life easier for those interested in fishing, research or environmental protection.

Known as Fishackathon, the two-day event brings together thousands of designers, software developers and fishing experts. Seattle is one of about 40 locations throughout the world where experts will put their heads together to invent technological solutions to some fishing-related problems.

Seattle Fishackathon, which is Saturday and Sunday, Feb. 10 and 11, is still looking for developers who can design and code/build a project, mentors who have expertise in fishing and outdoor issues, and volunteers who can help run the event. Teams can organize in advance and bring any hardware if they plan to build a device.

On Sunday afternoon, spectators are free to watch the demonstrations of projects developed during the weekend. The location is Epicodus vocational school, 1201 Third Ave., in downtown Seattle.

Among the 11 formal “challenges” are these problems looking for solutions:

Easy access to rules: With all the regulations governing fishing today, it is easy to get confused. Wouldn’t it be nice when you’re out in a boat to pull out your smart phone and obtain the fishing rules for that exact location? To meet the challenge, designers are expected to use GPS to map the location on the phone and link to local rules. Among other things, the app would be capable of sounding an alarm if the boat drifts into a closed area.

The worldwide winner of the 2016 Fishackathon was a team from Taipei, Taiwan, which developed an inexpensive sensor that can alert authorities to spawning activities by invasive Asian carp.

Fish identification: For people who have trouble telling one fish from another, this proposed app would use “facial recognition” technology to convert a picture from a smart phone into a positive identification. By stamping the time and location onto the photo, volunteer observers or anglers themselves could help build a database to assist fisheries managers.

Illegal fishing detectors: The goal is a network of small, unobtrusive and inexpensive floats containing electronic equipment that could be deployed over large areas where poaching is suspected. The equipment would include a listening device and software able to distinguish the sound of fishing activity. It could make an audio recording and transmit its location via satellite. A network of such devices would allow for triangulation to the location of the fishing boat, allowing enforcement officials to determine whether the fishing is legal. The equipment could make ocean patrols by authorities far more efficient.

Condition alerts: Fishers and other outdoor enthusiasts would have access to an app for sharing environmental information with authorities and each other in real time. For someone who wants to make a report, the app would call up the location on an interactive map for the person to mark the extent. One could report environmental problems, including algae blooms, fish kills, oil spills, invasive species, and high wind and waves. It could also be used to report conditions at boat ramps, crowded parks, availability of restrooms and poaching activity. The app could also receive reports from others.

Teams may come up with their own concepts, provided they follow the guidelines spelled out on the Fishackathon website.


In 2016, a team from the Monterey Bay Aquarium developed a basic app for helping fishermen follow local regulations in the Philippines.

Fishackathon is coordinated by HackerNest, a nonprofit organization of 75,000 technically inclined people in communities throughout the world. The event was originally supported by the U.S. State Department, which turned it over last year after three annual events, according to Colombe Nadeau-O’Shea, an organizer for HackerNest.

The event is run entirely on donations, and the group is always looking for sponsors, whether it be for the national program or local events, she said.

Amazon Web Services, a primary sponsor, is offering $5,000 to the top winner in each city and $25,000 to the global winner selected among all the city winners. Other prizes are offered at the global level and in some cities.

Learn about ecosystem indicators and the quest for Puget Sound health

More than 100 people tuned in today to an online presentation regarding the Puget Sound Partnership’s Vital Signs indicators and the quest for ecological health.

While there was not much breaking news, the session turned out to be a very nice summary of progress toward restoring ecological functions in Puget Sound — or rather, in too many cases, the ongoing declines in species and habitats.

One can review the entire two-hour webinar, in which a variety of our leading Puget Sound experts chime in on their areas of expertise. Go to Puget Sound Partnership’s webpage and click on “Vital Signs Webinar.”

Because of the linkage between Vital Signs and Implementation Strategies, many of the issues under discussion relate to stories that I have been writing for the Encyclopedia of Puget Sound over the past two years. Check out 16 stories by various writers on topics of ecosystem health found on the Puget Sound Institute’s website.

Other key documents on this subject:

One emerging issue brought up during the question-and-answer portion of today’s webinar was what will happen to the Vital Signs indicators and targets as the year 2020 approaches. The targets were all established with a notion that if we could meet certain goals by 2020, Puget Sound would be in pretty good shape. As it turns out, almost none of the targets will be met by 2020, so the struggle must go on.

Sometime this year, work will begin on a possible overhaul — or at least a major update — of the Vital Signs indicators and targets, according to officials with Puget Sound Partnership. Some indicators, for example, reflect the success of restoration projects by reporting the number of acres restored with no accounting for acres lost somewhere else.

The targets were originally established with a sense of optimism but without a clear understanding of what it would take, nor was there any commitment of funds for improving a specific type of habitat. As I see it, the uncertainty of financing will remain a problem until the Legislature comes up with a dedicated funding source.

Even if the targets remain the same, the target date of 2020 will need to be changed when we get to that year, if not sooner. I discuss some of the benefits and pitfalls of changing the indicators in a Water Ways post I wrote in November while going over the 2017 State of the Sound report.

The Puget Sound Science Panel, a team of expert advisers within the Puget Sound Partnership, is expected to play a primary role in revising the indicators and targets. I’m sure the discussion will address implementation strategies, adaptive management and a process to get Puget Sound on a more certain path to recovery.

Amusing Monday: Octopuses, the aliens we can encounter on Earth

Octopuses are among the coolest creatures on Earth. Not only are they dexterous, with an amazing ability to grasp and manipulate objects, they also seem to know what they are doing.

In tests, octopuses have proven that they can solve puzzles, and they certainly have some sort of memory. They can tell people apart, even if dressed in the same uniform. This may be surprising, especially since octopuses don’t really have a brain like that of humans and other vertebrates (animals with a backbone).

Not having a backbone — or any bones for that matter — allows octopuses to escape from places where much smaller invertebrates would get stuck. Check out the first video on this page, a popular clip taken by Chance Miller, an Alaskan fishing and tour guide for Miller’s Landing near Seward.

Chance tells his skeptical passengers that the large octopus slithering around his deck would escape out a tiny drain hole, that is if and when the creature decides to go.

No way, says one man heard on the video. “That’s like trying to get my wife in her wedding dress; it ain’t gonna happen.” But, of course, it did.

As for intelligence, philosopher Peter Godfrey-Smith says it is not so much a question of which animals among all the species are smarter in an formalistic sense. It’s about which animal best uses its intelligence to solve problems that relate to survival and success in other ways. The octopus is thus worthy of attention.

In his new and highly acclaimed book “Other Minds: The Octopus, the Sea, and the Deep Origins of Consciousness,” Godfrey-Smith talks about how octopuses and other cephalopods have a disbursed nervous system with neurons throughout their bodies. In some ways, a single tentacle may think for itself.

Mammals and birds have long been regarded as the smartest animals on Earth, but that may reveal a bias based on our similar patterns of thinking. After all, mammals and birds are closely related to us in an evolutionary sense, compared to all the invertebrates in the world.

Looking back in time, it is difficult to come up with a common ancestor to both humans and octopuses, Godfrey-Smith said. “It was probably an animal about the size of a leach or flatworm with neurons numbering perhaps in the thousands, but not more than that.” Check out the fascinating article in Quartz magazine by Olivia Goldhill.

This line of reasoning suggests that intelligence evolved on Earth in two very different ways. Studying the octopus could be the closest encounter that humans have with an alien creature, according to Godfrey-Smith. I may never think of an octopus quite the same way again.

Other interesting findings about octopuses are revealed in a 2009 Scientific American article, in which writer Brendan Borrell interviews Jennifer Mather, a comparative psychologist at the University of Lethbridge in Alberta, Canada.

The second video on this page shows an octopus solving a real-world problem of grabbing a meal by taking advantage of a human, while the third video is a 43-minute Planet Earth documentary released last summer about the intelligence and alien nature of the octopus.

I leave you at the end with a brief clip from the Cirque du Soleil performance of “Octopus’ Garden” by the Beatles.

In climate change, heat extremes tell a bigger story than average temps

News reports about climate change often focus on how the average global temperature is rising, but perhaps more attention should be paid to some alarming trends in extreme temperatures — the conditions that are more likely to kill people and push species toward extinction.

From 1986 to 2015, hottest-day-of-the-year readings climbed by 0.25 degrees Celsius per decade, the UCI study found. Some megacities saw a rise of 0.60 degrees Celsius per decade.
Map: Simon Michael Papalexiou, UCI

A new study published last week revealed that temperatures across the Earth’s surface went up an average of 0.19 degrees C (.34° F) each decade over the past 30 years, whereas the highest temperature recorded each year has gone up even more — an average of 0.25 degrees C (0.45° F) per decade.

The study, led by Simon Papalexiou of the University of California at Irvine, calls out even greater changes in the extreme temperatures in specific locations. Average change per decade of 0.33 degrees C (0.59° F) were measured in some parts of Europe, Asia, Australia and Africa. Download PowerPoint map (PPT 1.4 mb) from the report in the journal Earth’s Future.

Meanwhile, hottest temperatures recorded throughout the world grew even faster in some of the largest cities, according to the study. Of the cities for which reliable data are available, the increased temperature in the “megacities” rose an average of 0.33 degrees C (.59° F) per decade, and numerous cities exceeded 0.6 degrees C (1.08° F).

Over a 50-year time period, Paris had the fastest change, with the hottest temperature of the year growing by 0.96 degrees C (1.73° F) per decade. Over the past 30 years, Houston’s hottest temperatures grew even faster, rising 0.99 degrees C (1.8° F) per decade.

The urban heat island effect, which is caused by solar heat absorption in concrete, steel and glass structures, is “likely to have contributed to the observed alarming changes,” the report says, adding that a better understanding of the causes could help reduce the risks for people living in cities.

“More than just temperature readings on a map, these events have taken a severe human toll,” states a UCI news release on the paper. “A heat wave in Europe in 2003 caused roughly 70,000 deaths, and another in Russia in 2010 killed nearly 55,000 people. In the United States, an average of 658 deaths due to excessive heat were reported per year between 1999 and 2009.”

Amir AghaKouchak, a co-author of the study, said government officials will need to pay more attention in the megacities, where the risks are greatest.

“In France after that massive heatwave (in 2003), now all nursing homes or places where there are a lot of vulnerable people have to have at least a common room with air conditioning,” said AghaKouchak, quoted in a Reuters story by reporter Laurie Goering.

“That can be done and it’s already happening in some places,” he said. “But some countries don’t have the resources to do that.”

Architectural styles and green areas with trees and plants may help reduce the everyday risks to those who don’t have the resources to protect themselves.

The greatest problems surrounding climate change won’t be seen in the averages but in the new extremes — the temperatures, sea levels and rainy downpours never before experienced at a given location.

The website WX shift (pronounced “weather shift”) was designed to tell people about changing climate trends, including “The 10 hottest years.” For example, of the 10 hottest years on record, only two occurred before 1998 (1934 and 1990). The five hottest years on record have all occurred in the past 11 years.

WX shift also contains predictions for the number of days a given location will reach a high temperature. See “Future days above 95° F. This interactive graphic is said to be based on historical records and climate change models, as explained at the bottom of the page.

Another graphic on Climate Central’s website helps explain how a small change in average temperature can lead to an increasing number of record-breaking temperatures and more extreme conditions.