Category Archives: Environment

Green News

On Tuesday the Port of Bremerton is scheduled to vote on whether to accept the $2.58 million grant it has been offered by the U.S. Dept. of Commerce’s Economic Development Administration. Should the port decide to move ahead with Kitsap SEED, it will have to match the federal grant funds. Last time the commissioners delayed the vote so everyone could read the consultant’s report.

The Columbian has a story about U.S. Sen. Maria Cantwell, D-Wash., visiting the area and talking about green energy, specifically the bailout bill’s ornaments for green technology. Included in the story was a discussion about the power grid.

Now political leaders need to fix the nation’s electric grid, said Chris Crowley, president of Columbia Wind. “Our infrastructure is held together with chewing gum and bailing wire.”

Because of the grid’s age and limits in its design, wind power generated in rural areas cannot always be moved along transmission lines to the high-population areas where electricity users live.

When U.S. Rep. Jay Inslee, D-Bainbridge Island, was here, I mentioned infrastructure projects as part of his video’d Q&A. This was before the second vote in which the bailout bill passed. I brought up transportation projects, he specifically called out the power grid.

Seven Zip for SKIA Annexation

Andrew Binion covered the Bremerton City Council meeting Wednesday night, in which the council voted 7-0 to annex the bigger chunk of the South Kitsap Industrial Area.

As for a 2003 agreement that would have Port Orchard providing sewer to the site? “We’ll annex it, and we’ll decide,” said Bremerton Mayor Cary Bozeman. The “it” is SKIA, not Port Orchard.

This comes after the port requested annexation. The port represents about 54 percent of the ownership of SKIA property. The city’s opinion on the agreement is that it is not bound by an agreement it was not a party to.

Census Trumps Zoning

Over the past several weeks the county commissioners have been discussing a land use appeal of a hearing examiner decision denying a property owner’s request to build on his property the way he wants to.

I won’t go into the details of what he wants to do, in part because I haven’t dug too deeply into the application itself. The problem is the plans call for impervious surfaces that fit county zoning rules, but because of state stormwater rules, the property falls within what the state calls an urbanized census area. So there’s too much imperviousness to the plan.

The point of bringing it up here is because for the past few weeks that I’ve watched the commissioners wrangle over this issue, it has been clear to me that the commissioners want to let Mr. Jennings build what he wants, but can’t find a way to allow it.

At tonight’s county commissioners’ meeting, the commissioners said they couldn’t find a reason to overturn the hearing examiner’s decision, even though what’s being mandated “doesn’t pass the common sense test for the three of us,” said Josh Brown, county commissioner.

Jan Angel, county commissioner, said the state rules trump the county’s in this case. The commissioners are limited in the rationale they can use to overturn a hearing examiner decision and they said they can’t do it here. So they’ve sent the item back to staff to see if another proposed solution could make it possible to forego the commissioners having to deny his appeal.

Christopher Dunagan will probably be the one to follow up more on this particular case.

Congressman Dicks on Video

The main news peg from our meeting Tuesday morning with U.S. Rep. Norm Dicks, D-Belfair, was his assertion that the Suquamish Tribe is probably not going to bend easily to pressure to OK the boardwalk Bremerton wants. Here’s the story.

Included with the story is a short video in which Dicks defends the tunnel. That question is part of the four questions on the video I’ll include here.

The video also proves that there is a reason I went into print reporting instead of broadcasting.

As I mentioned in another post, the first question has me correctly saying “Senator Obama” instead of “President Obama,” but I said “president” first. What you hear is me correcting myself and laughing about it.

Gregoire Visits — Here’s the Plan

I covered the governor’s visit today, with help from our Bainbridge Island writer Tristan Baurick. At some point I’ll post videos, one a shorty and the other the seven minutes of her speech after she concluded thanking those who introduced her. I’m hoping to get that done tonight (Friday), but that might not happen. Batman might interfere.

SKIA — Why So Small?

We’ve known for a while that the SKIA annexation was to be done in two slices, the first one to be on the Bremerton City Council agenda Wednesday. But the difference in size between those pieces is pretty significant.

So I finally got around to asking someone, several people actually, why it’s being done this way, because a suspicious person could have ideas. The night of the Mariners (well, Red Sox) game I attended was one of the few times I lamented not being a sports reporter. On that desk no one faults you for suspecting that there might be strategy involved in, say, changing the amount of playing time a guy gets closer to the trade deadline. In other circles of life, people sometimes get offended if you ask them about ulterior motives. I understand that’s part of my job, but it doesn’t mean it has to be one of my favorite parts of the work. What’s true, though, is in most cases people understand why I ask and seldom are surprised by the question.

That was true in this case. The very public reason to split the SKIA pie in one huge piece and one tiny one is that the small piece doesn’t require the port’s participation. Port commissioners haven’t decided whether they want their SKIA property to be part of the City of Bremerton.

I asked a few people if there were some strategic reasons to do it this way. Would it make the second annexation easier if the first one went through without comment?

Most people didn’t want to go on the record on this question. I asked Rod Reid, who owns part of the SKIA North property, the basic question about any advantages. “Yeah, I would think,” he said, but it didn’t appear that he had spent a lot of time thinking about that.

It is possible that it would make the second annexation easier. If the north property goes through without much comment, there would be a few more feet of contiguous property already in Bremerton for the second annexation. If the first annexation is a fight, but is ultimately successful, those involved would hope all the obstacles would be discovered in the first effort. If the fight is a win for annexation opponents, then it raised the likelihood the parties would abandon hope on the second site.

Green Buses

Besides whatever happens on Kitsap SEED or SKIA at Tuesday’s Port of Bremerton commissioner meeting, there will a resolution supporting efforts to create hybrid electric/gas buses or fully electric buses. The resolution expresses the port’s support for public and private funding for the project.

agenda item

I’m told there may have once been a financial request associated with this item, but that the port is not allocating money this week.

Oil on the Agenda

This morning, assuming the county commissioners’ briefing agenda holds true, the commissioners have discussed fuel in two ways. One conversation is in regards to recommendations being made by an energy conservation commission.  The other discussion is the impact of oil prices on the Public Works department. Chris Dunagan is attending.

In a related note, did you know U.S. fuel consumption was down 3 percent during the first half of this year? I’ve been interested in Derek Sheppard’s hypermiling experiment and I suggest after this that you should get interested too.

Boardwalk Conversation — See for Yourself

They’re not done talking yet. We’ve got a story up that has U.S. Rep. Norm Dicks, D-Belfair, confirming that he’s trying to serve as a middle ground in a meeting between officials from the city of Bremerton and the Suquamish Tribe.

It can’t happen until August because Leonard Forsman, tribal chairman, will be canoeing north for a couple weeks.

Meanwhile the city is asking the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to reactivate the city’s boardwalk permit application.

One of the city’s contentions is that it has modified the boardwalk design in an attempt to satisfy the tribe’s concerns. As evidence they point to renderings of the proposed boardwalk. One was done before the conversations. The other one came afterward.

Here’s the old rendering.

Here’s the new one.

Q&A on Bremerton Boardwalk Issue

I thought I’d take a moment to provide at least some quick answers to a few of the questions that appeared following the story and the first blog entry on this matter.

Q: I sure do not remember ever seeing any tribal fisherman fishing there , and I have lived here for over 40 years.

A: I can’t answer whether tribal members have ever fished there, but the tribe does have the right to do so as part of its “usual and accustomed” fishing area. Leonard Forsman spoke of the tribe’s “future rights” in his conversation with me. It may be a lame example, but it’s similar to me having the right to drive on roads in Mississippi. You can’t take away that right from me solely because I’ve never been there.

The proposed Suquamish DockQ: Hey Steve, It would have been nice if you mentioned the 570 foot dock the tribe is building that is in the middle of a much larger fish run than that of the Bremerton dock.

A: I believe the actual length of the Suquamish dock is 526 feet. I did discuss it with the city and with the tribe and the dock discussion will be part of a later story. However, I still need to educate myself more about it, because I’m not convinced that it’s a fair criticism of the tribe. The boardwalk is six times as long and runs parallel to the shoreline. Plus, it’s a brand new feature, whereas the dock has been explained to me as replacing an old unusable 400-foot pier. On the other hand, I don’t think the 526-feet is the extent of the new dock and I’m not sure the old pier had near the recent impact the new dock will have. That’s why I’ve said I need to educate myself more on the dock before addressing it at length in a story. It’s worth bringing up generally.

Q: I am just trying to understand how it makes sense to put a sewer line OVER the water?

A: This information was clarified in the story to reflect more accurately that the sewer line would still run along the shoreline, but the boardwalk would have offshoots that would allow Public Works crews to access the sewer line.

Q: Bremerton should have thought through their project before it got to this stage. That means consultations with other agencies including tribes.

A: This was addressed in another blog entry that included Forsman’s letter. It’s clear to me that this is an important issue to people on both sides, because people on both sides have complained to me about it. Because the information wasn’t included in the story, some have concluded that the tribe only recently raised its objections. The tribe and the city were in conversations about this, and I get this from both camps, for about two years. The written objection was penned earlier this year, but Forsman said the city knew about the objections at least a year ago. I thought that including the information about some of the proposals the city had made to solve the tribe’s issues would make it clear that this is not new to those involved, but it’s clear now I should have spelled that out more.

Q: Why has no one asked where the City of Bremerton got the million plus dollars to spend on planning the boardwalk?

A: The story included, “Williams said the city estimates the cost to be around $24.6 million, of which the city has already raised about $14.3 million from property sales and state grants.” I believe there has been other city funds applied. Further in the question though the writer asks, “How can the City justify having already spent this much of YOUR tax dollars if the boardwalk is not going to get approved?” Well, the easy answer is the city assumed it could create a project that would get approved. Sometimes governments design things that don’t pan out. Zoning changes get nixed in court sometimes. That costs taxpayers money, too, but generally it’s taxpayers who file suit. Additionally, this project isn’t dead yet.

Q: No one seems to have pointed out another obvious question- why didn’t the tribe object to the bremerton marina on the same grounds???

A: The Port of Bremerton did have to work with the tribe on the marina and paid some money and built some elements based on concerns. Many times there are offsite remedies provided in response to proposals. The city and the tribe have to find what those could be, and might never find a common ground. If not, the city could apply, presumably get denied, then appeal.

The Suquamish Tribe Responds

Leonard Forsman at the Suquamish Tribe sent the following statement regarding today’s story about the tribe’s opposition to the Bremerton Boardwalk. This letter does offer more details about the tribe’s stand. I’ll offer comment on a couple elements.

Tribe seeks to clear the air on Boardwalk project

The Suquamish Tribe is committed to positive relationships with all people and governments of the Puget Sound. These relationships require a fair and open exchange of information.  That’s why; it is important to set the record straight on the current discussion regarding the proposed Bremerton Boardwalk extension project.

The Kitsap Sun story, “Suquamish Tribe Opposes Proposed Bremerton Boardwalk Extension” is misleading on several counts.  First, the article suggests that the City only recently learned of the Tribe’s concerns.  In fact, we have been engaged in discussions with the City for two years and have been clear that we oppose the Boardwalk extension in its current scope.  At the City’s request, the Tribe sent a letter to city officials in January 2008 detailing its concerns.

Second, the Tribe supports two of the three components of the Bremerton Boardwalk project.  We support the cleanup of the former Chevron Bulk Fuel Storage next to Evergreen Park and the replacement of the beach sewer main.  We support the Chevron Storage cleanup because it will restore critical nearshore habitat, which is a key aspect of the State’s Puget Sound Cleanup Initiative.  The Tribe works with various agencies and jurisdictions on similar projects to improve the health of Puget Sound and ensure a clean Puget Sound for future generations.

The Suquamish Tribe opposes the Boardwalk extension primarily because of its expansive overwater coverage.  This structure would cover the equivalent of two traffic lanes stretching for nearly 2/3 mile.  The Tribe is concerned that a structure of this size will likely destroy critical habitat for fish and shellfish, collect garbage and pollution, change feeding and migratory patterns of fish, and alter currents which impacts sedimentation and marine life.

The story also misleads by stating that the Tribe has provided a written objection to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.  We can’t officially object until the regulatory permitting process starts.  Others may weigh in during permit review.

The Tribe is fulfilling its duty to protect its treaty fishing rights and resources by being a good steward of our traditional waters.

Despite our differences on this project, the Tribe strives to be a good neighbor and has successfully worked with the City and the Port of Bremerton on past projects.   The Tribe is confident that City and the Tribe will continue to do so.

Leonard Forsman
Suquamish Tribe

Some of my response is included in my letter back to Forsman.

I don’t think the story suggests the city just learned this, but it’s clear some readers have that impression. Originally I had intended to be more specific with time information, but I wasn’t solid about the dates, so I removed the time element. It’s clear to me now that apparently that’s an important distinction.

The story does make it clear that the tribe supports two of the three components, namely the property cleanup and the new sewer line. The scope of the boardwalk provides the source of objection.

On the objection to the Army Corps, I heard that from Phil Williams. He said the city applied to the corps, but pulled its application after the tribe responded to the corps. In fact, he said he received the tribe’s written objection from the corps. I’ve made a document request to the city for whatever letters the tribe sent to the corps and for the city’s response. I’m supposed to have those in the morning.

Bremerton Boardwalk in Deep Water

The Suquamish Tribe does not want Bremerton to build the boardwalk the city is proposing to run between downtown and Evergreen Rotary Park.

The objection is based on the tribal officials’ contention that the walkway could impact its fishing abilities there and habitat near the shore.

A letter the tribe sent to the city (Download the Suquamish Letter.) indicates the tribe’s support for environmental cleanup near park property and the sewer line improvements the city had hoped to accomplish as part of the boardwalk work. No go on the boardwalk itself, though, the primary symbol of the public works project.

In researching the story I wanted to find out the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers opinion of how Bremerton Public Works Director Phil Williams characterized the corps’ stance on tribal objections. He said he’d been told it was “absolute veto power.” It took a while for me to get clear on the corps’ answer, but from our story you can see how it eventually was settled.

Patricia Graesser, Seattle District Army Corps spokeswoman, said she wouldn’t describe the tribe’s opinion as “veto power,” but how she described the corps’ process appears to at least come close to it.

“If they (the tribes) issue an objection, then we would need resolution of that before we would issue a permit,” she said.

This represents the first real public hiccup for the proposed boardwalk project. Until now the idea had met favor here at home and in Olympia. It seems almost unimaginable that the project wouldn’t get done. And yet it might not. The corps could sit on the application until there’s buy-in from the tribe. Or it could get pressured politically to issue a ruling, even if it is a denial. Then the city would have to take it to the courts, and there’s no way of knowing how that would go down.

Bipartisan SEED Support in the 35th

This evening I attended one of the Kitsap Sun editorial board’s meetings with candidates from the 35th District. I missed the first one with candidates for the second seat (Baze, Daugs, Finn, Neatherlin).

In the first seat Democratic incumbent state Rep. Kathy Haigh from Shelton and one of her challengers, Republican Brad Gehring from Bremerton, met with the board. The other Republican, Belfair’s Marco Brown, opted to not attend.

One of the board members asked the candidates whether they’d continue financially supporting Kitsap SEED as a state legislator.

“We have already,” said Haigh. “And I will again.”

Haigh said Kitsap SEED is well placed and timed for Mason County as well as Kitsap. She said supporting the project is the right thing to do as gas prices go up and she’ll do everything she can to support it.

Gehring was more cautionary, but said the SEED project presents a “tremendous opportunity” to develop a business cluster. He said he would be willing to support getting the infrastructure for it. He said it’s “one good answer,” in a conversation in which he said much about the state supporting or easing economic development.

The caveat: “We’ve got to be careful that this doesn’t become a governmentally dependent agency,” he said.

I’m told the first group didn’t get that question.

Tracking the SEEDway

Get it? It’s a play on this blog’s former name. Anyway, there’s a connection.

As the commenter with the nom de blog Registered Voter pointed out, what I referenced as “Burke and Associates” in the live blog is actually “Berk and Associates,” which makes all the difference in the world.

Berk was the company that did the study (Speedway_Economic_Assessment.pdf) projecting revenues and attendance should the speedway be built. The company was hired by International Speedway Corp. to do the study. The work was done with the cooperation of the state’s Office of Financial Management. An OFM official later said the projections were reasonable, but as has been pointed out here by commenters, reasonable didn’t mean iron clad.

The study was done when NASCAR attendance had peaked, which meant some of the assumptions might be downscaled were they to be done again.

At Tuesday’s meeting the name didn’t immediately jump out at me. Then RV posted the comment and holy moley we’ve got a story of sorts. A familiar name comes back.

The most interesting point to this for me is that many who might have been skeptical of Berk’s work on the speedway now have to hope the company comes down favorably on the plan for the project they do want.

McCain’s Environmental Investments

Republican presidential candidate, Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz., speaks at the Vestas Training Facility in Portland, Ore., Monday May 12, 2008. (AP Photo/Greg Wahl-Stephens).

Republican presidential candidate John McCain gave a speech Monday saying he’d address global climate change by instituting a cap-and-trade program. You can read the full prepared text of his speech by clicking on the piece below that extends this post.

I read the speech to see if there was any hint of federal investment into something like Kitsap SEED. Here’s the one thing I found that some could hope translates into that:

Under my plan, we will apply these and other federal funds to help build the infrastructure of a post-carbon economy. We will support projects to advance technologies that capture and store carbon emissions. We will assist in transmitting wind- and solar-generated power from states that have them to states that need them. We will add to current federal efforts to develop promising technologies, such as plug-ins, hybrids, flex-fuel vehicles, and hydrogen-powered cars and trucks. We will also establish clear standards in government-funded research, to make sure that funding is effective and focused on the right goals.

And to create greater demand for the best technologies and practices in energy conservation, we will use the purchasing power of the United States government. Our government can hardly expect citizens and private businesses to adopt or invest in low-carbon technologies when it doesn’t always hold itself to the same standard. We need to set a better example in Washington, by consistently applying the best environmental standards to every purchase our government makes.

To get the context you really should read the whole speech, something people are loathe to do these days.

It might be a thin post to hang your hopes on, but he’s talking about investing in new technologies by building infrastructure, funding research and buying the end product.

The Republican nominee is in town Monday and Tuesday, mostly to raise money. He will have a press event Tuesday in North Bend.

Continue reading

SEED Sunday

There have always been people dubious about Kitsap SEED. What’s happening now, though, is people who once embraced the concept now find themselves wondering if the time to call it quits is approaching.

In the earlier post I mentioned the comments from state Sen. Phil Rockefeller, D-Bainbridge Island and County Commissioner Josh Brown (also a Democrat).

Brown’s newfound withholding appears to stem more from the effort by the port to be annexed into Bremerton. When I asked Port Commissioner Cheryl Kincer to respond to Brown’s comment that the county might keep its $1 million, she said he told her the same thing. He added that the county might also reconsider its commitment to a Highway 3 corridor study and Lake Flora Road plans.

Rockefeller early on said he was once skeptical, but became a fan of the concept. He was instrumental in getting the port $1.1 million in 2007, a move that earned him a scolding from Bremerton Mayor Cary Bozeman. The money came from funds that had been set aside for work in downtown Bremerton. Hizzoner was none too pleased. Now Rockefeller is suggesting the public well may be dry.

The port commissioners are unsettled about whether it should invest its money in an incubator building that isn’t likely to have committed tenants until construction is assured. Kincer is the swing vote in all of this. No reviewer has been picked, so we’ll be at this for a while.

In response to a question on the other post, I read our archives and don’t find a single instance in which anyone assured that private money would help build this first phase. There is a clear expectation that private interests will drive construction of the subsequent phases. My cursory looks through the stack of business plans going back to 2004 reveal no commitment of that sort, either.

That doesn’t mean it didn’t happen. There were repeated implications that private companies were interested in the project generally. And the fact that Rockefeller and Kincer, who have not been naysayers on this, are now calling for some private presence suggests to me that even if no one explicitly said there would be early private money, enough people inferred it that the message was in there somewhere. I don’t know enough about the earlier conversations to tell you whether the expectations now are based on innocent miscommunications or lies. Either way, the impression is hurting the project now.

Kitsap’s Appointments to the PSRC

Tomorrow, I’ll be attending a meeting of the Kitsap Regional Coordinating Council, at which members will outline a process for evaluating Kitsap’s membeship in the Puget Sound Regional Council. You can read the most recent story about Kitsap and the PSRC here, but in a nutshell, South Kitsap Commissioner Jan Angel and members of the community, most notably Kitsap Alliance of Property Owners, have questioned the value of Kitsap’s membership in the PSRC.

An evaluation by county staff shows Kitsap received roughly $31 million more in funding for regional transportation projects from 1992 through 2007 than it would have if it had operated as its own independent planning organization. But critics and Angel say that PSRC takes away local control. Angel was among a handful of PSRC members who recently voted against that entity’s Vision 2040 plan.

Because the question of whether the PSRC is good for Kitsap has been raised, all local entities involved need to be able to weigh in said Mary McClure, KRCC’s executive director. McClure and others have suggested that an equally timely discussion would be how Kitsap can increase its effectiveness on the PSRC, which also includes King, Pierce and Snohomish County.

Central Kitsap Commissioner Josh Brown, who serves on the PSRC’s executive committee, would like to see more involvement on the part of Kitsap’s committee appointees to the PSRC. Just by showing up and taking part, they can exert significant influence despite Kitsap’s relatively small size compared to the other counties, Brown said.

Here’s a list of Kitsap appointees to the PSRC (below, I’ll list Kitsap Regional Coordinating Council’s 2008 membership so you’ll know who fits where).

Kitsap Regional Coordinating Council 2008:
Council Member Carol Arends
City of Bremerton

North Kitsap Commissioner Steve Bauer
Kitsap County

Kitsap County
South Kitsap Commissioner Jan Angel
Central Kitsap Commissioner Josh Brown

City of Bremerton
Mayor Cary Bozeman
Council Member Will Maupin
Council Member Nick Wofford*

City of Bainbridge Island
Mayor Darlene Kordonowy
Council Member Debbie Vancil
Council Member Kim Brackett*

City of Port Orchard
Mayor Lary Coppola
Council Member Carolyn Powers*

City of Poulsbo
Mayor Kathryn Quade
Council Member Ed Stern

Suquamish Tribe (Membership Memorandum of Understanding in Progress)
Council Chair Leonard Forsman
Rob Purser*

Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribe
Council Chair Leonard Forsman
Rob Purser*

Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribe (Membership Memorandum of Understanding in Progress)
Council Chair Ron Charles
Doug Quade*

Port of Bremerton
Commissioner Cheryl Kincer
Commissioner Bill Mahan

Naval Base Kitsap (ex officio member)
Captain Reid Tanaka
Tom Danaher, PAO*

Mary McClure
Executive Management
McClure Consulting LLC

The Mayor Writes . . .

Please divert your attention to a couple of blog entries by local fixture and recently elected Port Orchard Mayor Lary Coppola.

We speculated on Bremerton’s interest in SKIA, but Port Orchard’s possible role received little more than passing interest. Coppola’s got an idea that, especially given his position, port and Bremerton officials will give consideration.

Coppola also weighs in on Kitsap SEED, in response to chief consultant Tim Botkin’s firing, er, having his contract terminated.

The mayor might (I said “might”) be overstating what Botkin was obligated contractually to provide for the money he was being paid, but spoke what is for many the absolute truth when you separate what’s in the contract from what are reasonable expectations. I only hedge on “might,” because I know what was in the most recent contract, and based on what I’ve seen that was about to come to pass.

Where Coppola cites examples, though, his commentary is pretty telling.

He couldn’t even put together a coherent grant application. Instead of spending a couple of thousand dollars on a professional grant writer, in one instance, he kept the money in his own pocket and did it himself. He scored 345 points out of a possible 1,000 — nearly at the very bottom of the list.

Kathleen Byrne-Barrantes is among those who are specifically proficient at writing grants and getting funding. She has helped the City of Bremerton score tons of grant money for park and other programs. The city pays her to write the grant and provide the supplementary material and so far the investment has paid off. I don’t know if Byrne-Barrantes is the grant writer Coppola’s referring to, but she’s an example.

In October we wrote about SEED getting passed over for a grant. At the time we wrote:

Tim Thomson, the port’s chief operating officer, said the fact that nothing has yet been built on the SEED site was likely one of the port’s weaknesses in its application.

“Since ours is more conceptual than physical, we were probably at a disadvantage,” he said. “Our weakness is we are just beginning the site. We’re competing with zones that were defined around infrastructure that already existed.”

I tried to find out if this is the grant Coppola was referring to, but it’s late Monday and I’m tired of trying to negotiate around the CTED Web site tonight. It’s one we know about, though.

You may be most surprised at Coppola’s ending. He thinks the port did the right thing by dumping Botkin, but he isn’t opposed to SEED.