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Amusing Monday: Odd and colorful species make top-10 list for ’17

A newly named stingray that lives in freshwater has joined an omnivorous rat and a couple of leggy wormlike creatures as part of the Top-10 New Species for 2017.

Sulawesi root rat
Photo: Kevin Rowe, Museums Victoria

The top-ten list, compiled by the College of Environmental Science and Forestry (ESF) at the State University of New York, also includes a tiny spider found in India, a katydid discovered in Malaysia and a spiny ant from Papua New Guinea. Two interesting plants also made the list.

It’s often amusing to learn how various critters are first discovered and ultimately how they are named — sometimes for fictional characters with similar characteristics.

ESF President Quentin Wheeler, who founded the International Institute for Species Exploration, said nearly 200,000 new species have been discovered since the top-10 list was started a decade ago.

“This would be nothing but good news were it not for the biodiversity crisis and the fact that we’re losing species faster than we’re discovering them,” he said. “The rate of extinction is 1,000 times faster than in prehistory. Unless we accelerate species exploration, we risk never knowing millions of species or learning the amazing and useful things they can teach us.”

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Amusing Monday: Ten new species with their own stories to tell

An international team of taxonomists has chosen the “Top 10 New Species of 2016” from among some 18,000 new species named in 2015.

They include a hominin in the same genus as humans and an ape nicknamed “Laia” that might provide clues to the origin of humans, according to information provided by the College of Environmental Science and Forestry at the State University of New York, which compiles the list each year.

The list also includes a newly identified giant Galapagos tortoise, two fish, a beetle named after a fictional bear, and two plants — a carnivorous sundew considered endangered as soon as it was discovered and a tree hiding in plain sight, states a news release from ESF.

The annual list of the top 10 new species was established in 2008 to call attention to the fact that thousands of new species are being discovered each year, while other species are going extinct at least as fast.

“The rate of description of species is effectively unchanged since before World War II,” said Quintin Wheeler, ESF president. “The result is that species are disappearing at a rate at least equal to that of their discovery.

“We can only win this race to explore biodiversity if we pick up the pace,” he said. “In so doing we gather irreplaceable evidence of our origins, discover clues to more efficient and sustainable ways to meet human needs and arm ourselves with fundamental knowledge essential for wide-scale conservation success.”

The top-10 list, compiled by the International Institute for Species Exploration, is a colorful sampling of the new species being named by taxonomists. The list comes out each year around Mary 23 — the birthday of Carolus Linnaeus, an 18th century botanist considered the father of modern taxonomy.

Descriptions of the “Top 10 New Species of 2016” are taken from information provided by ESF, which permitted use of the photographs. Additional information and photos can be found by following the links below.

Giant Tortoise

Chelonoidis donfaustoi

Eastern Santa Cruz Tortoise Photo: Washington Tapia
Eastern Santa Cruz Tortoise // Photo: Washington Tapia

A research team working in the Galapagos Archipelago of Ecuador has discovered that two species of giant tortoises — not just one — co-exist on the island of Santa Cruz. The discovery comes 185 years after Charles Darwin noted that slight variations in the shells of tortoises could distinguish which island they were from, which is among the evidence Darwin used in his theory of evolution.

Giant Sundew

Drosera magnifica

Giant sundew Photo: Paulo M. Gonella
Giant sundew // Photo: Paulo M. Gonella

This particiular giant sundew, a carnivorous plant, is the largest sundew ever found in the New World. It is believed to be the first species of plant discovered through a photograph on Facebook. It is considered critically endangered, since it is known to live in only one place in the world, the top pf a 5,000-foot mountain in Brazil.

Hominin

Homo naledi

Homo naledi Photo: John Hawks, Wits University
Homo naledi // Photo: John Hawks, Wits University

Fossil remains of at least 15 individuals makes this the largest collection of a single species of hominin ever found on the African continent. Once the age of the bones is determined, the finding will have implications for the branch of the family tree containing humans.

Photos and description

Isopod

Iuiuniscus iuiuensis

Isopod Photo: Souza, Ferreira & Senna
Isopod // Photo: Souza, Ferreira & Senna

This tiny amphibious crustacean, discovered in a South American cave, represents a new subfamily, genus and species of isopod with a behavior never seen before in its family group: It builds shelters of mud.

Anglerfish

Lasiognathus dinema

Angler fish Photo Ted Pietsch, University of Washington
Angler fish // Photo Ted Pietsch, University of Washington

This two-inch anglerfish — with its odd fishing-pole-like structure dangling in front — was discovered in the Gulf of Mexico by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration while assessing natural resource damages from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. The dangling structure, called an esca, is home to symbiotic bacteria that produce light in the darkness of the deep ocean and is presumably used to catch prey.

Photos and description

Seadragon

Phyllopteryx dewysea

Ruby seadragon Image: Josefin Stiller, Nerida Wilson and Greg Rouse
Ruby seadragon skeleton
Image: Josefin Stiller, Nerida Wilson and Greg Rouse

The ruby red seadragon, related to sea horses, is only the third known species of sea dragon. At 10 inches long and living in relatively shallow water off the West Coast of Australia, it is notable for having escaped notice so long. The ruby seadragon was first identified while testing museum specimens for genetics, then the hunt was on for a living sample.

Beetle

Phytotelmatrichis osopaddington

Tiny beetle Photo: Michael Darby
Tiny beetle // Photo: Michael Darby

The scientific name of this tiny beetle, just 1/25th of an inch long, comes from the fictional Paddington Bear, a lovable character in children’s books who showed up at Paddington Station in London with a sign that read, “Please look after this bear.” The researchers hope the name for the new beetle will call attention to the plight of the “threatened” Andean spectacled bear, which inspired the Paddington books. The beetle is found in pools of water that accumulate in the hollows of plants in Peru, where the bear also is found.

Primate

Pliobates cataloniae

Artists recreation of new primate Image: Mar􀀯a Palmero, Institut Catalá de Paleontologia Miquel (ICP)
Artist recreation of new primate // Image: Marta Palmero, Institut Catalá de Paleontologia Miquel (ICP)

An ape nicknamed “Laia” lived about 11.6 million years ago in what is now Spain, climbing trees and eating fruit. She lived before the lineage containing humans and great apes diverged from a sister branch that contains the gibbons. Her discovery raises the prospect that early humans could be more closely related to gibbons than to the great apes.

Flowering tree

Sirdavidia solannona

Open flower and buds on new tree Photo: Thomas Couvreur
Open flower on new tree // Photo: Thomas Couvreur

Found near the main road in Monts de Cristal National Park, in Gabon, this new tree species had been overlooked for years in inventories of local trees, which tended to focus on larger specimens. The tree grows to only about 20 feet high and is so different from related members of the Annonaceae family of flowering plants that it was given its own genus.

Damselfly

Umma Gumma

Male damselfly Photo: Jens Kipping
Male damselfly // Photo: Jens Kipping

This new damselfly, called the sparklewing, is among an extraordinary number of new damselflies discovered in Africa, with 60 species reported in one publication alone. Most of the new species are so colorful and distinct that they can be identified solely from photographs. The name Umma Gumma was taken from the 1969 Pink Floyd album, “Ummagumma,” which is British slang for sex.