I believe it is important to commemorate the final day of the
Glines Canyon Dam — even though only a relatively small chunk of
the structure had been left in place since February, when flows in
the Elwha River covered over the last 30 feet.
In a massive explosion on Tuesday, that last 30 feet of concrete
was blasted away. Almost immediately, the river began to flow
freely, at basically the same elevation it was before the dam was
built in the 1920s.
Olympic National Park officials say it will take several weeks
to clear away the rubble dislodged by the final blast, but dramatic
changes have been taking place downstream of the former Glines
Canyon Dam — the second dam on the river, built eight miles
upstream of the Elwha Dam.
Researchers are carefully monitoring sediment distribution and
salmon migration, officials say. During the past three years, the
Elwha River has experienced unusually low flows, so experts are
waiting for more typical winter flows to move around some of the
larger boulders in the stream.
Since last fall, salmon have been swimming upstream of the Elwha
Dam site. The dam, built without a fish ladder, blocked salmon
migration into some 70 miles of near-pristine habitat. Now,
biologists expect all five species of Northwest salmon to
recolonize the river.
In a story in today’s Peninsula Daily News, reporter Arwyn Rice
quoted Robert Ellefson, restoration manager for the Lower Elwha
Klallam Tribe: “It’s a good day… It has been the dream of tribal
members for a hundred years.”
The tribe will have something special to celebrate come next
July, when members hold their annual welcoming ceremony,
acknowledging the return of chinook salmon to the Elwha River.
When my editor, Kim Rubenstein, asked me to write a story for
people who wish to check out the Elwha River restoration, it seemed
like a good idea. After playing the role of tourist for a day, I’m
convinced that many visitors will have a good time learning about
this once-in-a-lifetime event.
Learning about the natural features of the Elwha River watershed
is an important part of the experience. Before you leave home, I
recommend that you view a series of “webisodes”
on the Olympic National Park website. I’m told these videos by
Wings Over Watersheds are a sampling of what will eventually become
a longer video production.
A more complete story about the Elwha Restoration Project,
including a history of the two dams, has been captured in a new
book by Seattle Times reporter Linda Mapes. I wrote a
review of her book, “Elwha: A River Reborn,” to accompany my
visitor’s guide to the area.
I think kids and adults alike will enjoy playing around with a
Glines Canyon at Feiro Marine Life Center, where one can pull
out the dam and watch the sediment move downstream.
Randall Walz, director of education and volunteers at the
center, told me about misconceptions that some people have. Many
believe that the sediment in the Elwha moved downstream and piled
up behind the dams, he said. Instead, most of the sediment was
dropped off in the upper portion of the two reservoirs, where the
water slowed down as it entered the lakes.
The restoration work included digging a pilot channel through
the Lake Mills delta to form a new channel and guide the river
through the trapped sediment. The goal is not to move the sediment
downstream as quickly as possible, Walz said, but rather to
stabilize the deltas and allow them to erode over a longer period
If you want to see change, be sure to visit the mouth of the
Elwha River, which you reach from a dike trail at the end of Place
Road. Wherever you see sand, that’s change, because there was no
sand here before, said Anne Shaffer of the Coastal Watershed
The sandy habitat will better support the migration of juvenile
salmon and provide spawning areas for sandlance, a forage fish. The
decline of the rocky habitat could mean the end of tall kelp, but
researchers hope the new sandy habitat will support the growth of
eelgrass and a burgeoning community of diverse plants and animals.
Check out the
story I wrote in March, following a conference on the nearshore
changes taking place.
I have to say there’s not a lot of excitement to behold in the
upper portions of the two reservoirs unless you remember what it
was like when the lakes were in place or can visualize the enormity
of the change. The river now carves its way through a dry lake bed,
where one can see large old-growth stumps, which were either under
water or buried by sediment. Plants are coming back, some placed
there by restoration workers, others by natural processes.
With or without the dams, one can enjoy the escape into this
natural area, particularly as one moves into the higher trails in
Olympic National Park. Be sure to take time to enjoy the natural
surroundings, even if you need to cut out parts of your planned
If you want to observe the changes over time, I suggest you find
a vantage point and take a picture during your visit. When you
return the next time, take another picture for comparison. The
heavy gravel and silt seems fairly inhospitable at the moment. But
if you return again and again, I expect you’ll be amazed at the
transformation taking place over the next few years.
The folks at Olympic National Park who keep us informed about
the Elwha River Ecosystem Restoration Project could not have
described it better: “It has been an explosive week at Glines
Canyon Dam,” they said in their “Dam
The “salmon window,” designed to protect migrating fish, has now
closed, allowing work in the river to begin again. This week, four
big blasts blew out large sections of the dam on Saturday, Monday,
Tuesday and Wednesday, as the reservoir level dropped from 489 to
476 feet, according to the blog. Click on the image to start the
video of the blasting.
After an upcoming blast on Sunday, a 14-day waiting period will
begin to allow the river to erode laterally.
The remote cameras at both the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams are
useful for observing environmental and structural changes in the
areas around the two dams. An unexpected use came into play
Thursday, when an average person looking at the Elwha Dam webcam
noticed a fire burning at the edge of the picture.
Firefighters from Clallam County, the Washington Department of
Natural Resources and Olympic National Park were able to extinguish
the blaze before it could burn more than half an acre. The cause of
the fire is under investigation. Read the
news release about fire danger in the national park.
It’s worth noting that we have just passed the first anniversary
of the start of dam removal. The Elwha Dam is gone and most site
work is complete. Glines Canyon Dam is about 60 percent removed.
And salmon have been observed swimming upstream of the Elwha Dam.
Click on the image (lower right) to start the video, which shows
what has happened over the past year.
The delta and shoreline above Glines Canyon Dam provide a
stunning contrast to the surrounding forest in this photo take
yesterday by Tom Roorda.
Work in the Elwha River stopped Aug. 1 for the “fish window,”
which will halt all in-water work until Sept. 15. During this time,
steps are being taken to reduce flows of sediment, which can harm
migrating salmon. Salmon are being trapped downstream for transport
into clearer waters above the dams.
As you can see, the reservoir level has come down at Glines as
more of the delta is exposed and the river seeks multiple routes on
its downstream course.
Tom Roorda, owner of Northwestern Territories, has taken aerial
photos of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams and their sediment
plumes since the beginning of dam removal. Check out his website,
Roorda Aerial, which
contains a slideshow of some interesting and beautiful aerial
As we have discussed, the lower Elwha Dam has been removed and
the river is flowing at historical levels. Massive amounts of
sediment are moving downstream and into the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
The finer sediments that have reached the Strait so far tend to
disperse rather than accumulate.
During the fish window, work crews at Glines are preparing to
demolish the intake tower, which is no longer in the river. A blast
at the base will drop the tower onto its side, allowing a
jackhammer attached to an excavator to break up the concrete.
In July, six controlled blasts lowered Glines Canyon Dam by 24
feet to the current elevation of 490 feet. About 90 feet of the
original 210-foot-tall dam remain, according to the “Dam
Removal Blog,” written Olympic National Park staff.
The two final blasts on July 29 and 31 notched the dam the final
six feet to elevation 490 feet. Videos of three of the blasts can
be viewed below in these explosive shots provided by URS:
Removal of the Elwha Dam and drawdown of Lake Aldwell behind it
have gone faster than originally planned, and now the story of the
Elwha River restoration becomes a story of erosion. Experts are
watching the sediment movement very closely.
The Elwha Dam has been entirely removed down to the river bed
(see photos below), and the river is now flowing in its original
channel, where it will remain. The river is being held back mainly
by a “check dam” of boulders. At the moment, the drawdown has been
halted at 133 feet elevation for a scheduled two-week holding
Andy Ritchie, restoration project hydrologist with Olympic
National Park, says the pause in drawdown will allow the river to
snake around to redistribute the sediment more evenly across the
valley. The final target elevation for the river bed is 100
Drawdown of Lake Mills, behind the upper Glines Canyon Dam, also
is on hold at the moment. Even more sediment is trapped behind that
dam. While project managers have largely lost control over the
movement of sediment behind the lower dam, the upper dam remains
intact enough to control migration of sediment from farther up the
As the weather improves this spring (or at least we can hope),
it may be time for many of us to visit the former lake beds at the
two dams. We can walk out onto the deltas and see the new
vegetation starting to grow. Lake Aldwell’s delta can be reached
from the old boat launch. For Lake Mills, take Whiskey Bend Road,
which has been reopened, and you will come to Humes Ranch trailhead
with access from there.
Work resumed yesterday on the Elwha Dam site after biologists
determined that the annual chum salmon migration had ended. The
work originally was to be delayed until Jan. 1.
Work in and near the river stopped on Nov. 1 to protect fish
runs from heavy sediment, as scheduled in a work plan adopted
several years ago. Three work stoppages — known as fish windows —
are planned each year.
Adult chum salmon were captured as they returned and were
transferred to the fish hatchery operated by the Lower Elwha
Klallam Tribe, according to a news release from Olympic National
Park. Offspring of those chum will be released into the river in
It’s been awhile since I posted photos from the demolition site.
As you can see from the pictures on this page, the change since
mid-September is dramatic.
Most of the Elwha Dam powerhouse has been removed, and work is
scheduled for completion at the end of this month, according to the
Removal Blog. Materials from the old power plant are being
All the old power lines and poles associated with Elwha and
Glines Canyon dams have been removed.
The 120-foot-tall surge tower was pushed over Thursday.
The river was diverted back into the right channel yesterday, as
water levels behind the dam continue to go down.
Revegetation of the two reservoir areas started in November and
continued into December with the planting of about 12,000 plants.
Another 18,000 plants are planned for January and February.
If you’d like to watch the entire demolition of either dam to
date, go to the Elwha
River Restoration Project webcams and click on “Java” for any
of the cameras. The fastest way to watch the entire time-lapse
series is by putting the delay on 0.
Work will continue on the removal of both Elwha and Glines
Canyon dam until the end of this month, when a “fish window” will
shut down operations on the water. Work will shift to demolition of
penstocks, powerhouses and other structures — work that will not
release sediment into the river, according to the Elwha
Blog provided by Olympic National Park. Construction in the
water can resume at the end of the year.
At the Elwha Dam, contractors are blasting away to remove the
left spillway foundation down into bedrock to form the downstream
end of a diversion channel. The diversion channel is scheduled to
be put into operation the week of Oct. 17, when the river will flow
through the channel at an increased rate, drawing down Lake
The Elwha watershed promises to be an outdoor laboratory for the
revival of an ecosystem after two dams are removed from the Elwha
Dam removal began Thursday at Glines Canyon Dam, as I traveled
to Port Angeles for a conference of more than 350 scientists and
other interested persons. This group came together to learn about
baseline studies conducted to date and to hear about anticipated
changes in the ecosystem. Check out my story in
Sunday’s Kitsap Sun.
Meanwhile, a controversy over a fish hatchery operated by the
Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe threatens to erupt into a lawsuit.
Several environmental groups have issued a 60-day notice to sue
under the Endangered Species Act, saying raising steelhead from
another area — Chambers Creek — could imperil the recovery of
threatened chinook salmon and bull trout in the Elwha. See reporter
Lynda Mapes’ story in the
Will Stelle of the National Marine Fisheries Service, which
oversees federal protections for salmon, said discussions about the
hatchery are ongoing, but federal treaties assure the tribes a
right to fish, and those rights cannot be ignored. A five-year
moratorium on fishing has been imposed, but tribal officials say
they may need hatchery-reared fish when fishing resumes.
I mentioned a few of the presentations in
Sunday’s Kitsap Sun, and I could talk about them for hours.
There was one presentation about birds that surprised me, and I
wanted to share some of the conclusions with you.
John McLaughlin of Huxley College at Western Washington
University explored the question of how birds might help restore
vegetation in the reservoirs and flood plains associated with the
Elwha and Glines Canyon dams.
Of 39 major native plants in the watershed, 23 have their seeds
dispersed by birds. That’s 59 percent of the plants of interest. If
managers could get the birds working for them, they might not need
to plant as much vegetation by hand.
That 59 percent is higher than most temperate regions of the
world, where normally birds disperse seeds from 25 to 40 percent of
the plants, McLaughlin said. But it’s a lower percentage than for
most tropical regions, where birds may disperse up to 90 percent of
all the plants in the area.
By watching birds fly from vegetated areas to more barren areas
and collecting samples of their scat, McLaughlin found that robins
disperse more seeds than all other birds combined. In fact, the
total was close to 100 percent for robins. While there are plenty
of other bird species in the ecosystem, most typically do not fly
from one habitat type to another, McLaughlin told the
He also found that most of the seeds deposited by robins ended
up in and near logjams and piles of woody debris.
“Birds are agents of restoration,” he told the group, “but for
them to work with us, you have to give them what they need, and
that’s large woody debris.”
If one wants to use birds to replant the forest, the first step
is to consider which plants you want to disperse, he said. Then
downed trees and limbs could be pulled together into a pile, or one
could simply leave existing piles in strategic locations. The woody
piles must be located far enough from the desirable plants that the
birds can make a difference in dispersing seeds. But if the piles
are too far away, the birds may not cooperate with the plan.
As for the concern about birds dispersing invasive plants as
well as desirable ones, many of the undesirables were removed from
the area around the dams in preparation for dam removal. The
concern about invasives is reduced further by understanding that
only five of the 20 invasive plants are dispersed by birds.
The contractor for the Elwha dam removal project jumped right
into the job yesterday, pounding away at the upper Glines Canyon
Dam with a hydraulic hammer mounted on an excavator, which was
sitting atop a barge.
By this morning, a good-sized chunk of concrete had been eaten
out of the dam, as you can see in the photo below. This picture was
taken by one of six webcams that are focused on the two dams. As I
Water Ways on Aug. 16, this could be the best seat in the house
for the deconstruction of the two dams.
At slide 213, you will see the first chunks taken out of the dam
yesterday at 10:18 a.m. Use the controls at the bottom to slow down
the slideshow to one frame per second, or march through the
slideshow frame-by-frame to get a good view of the action.
While these photos will be fun and interesting for everyone to
follow, they are an essential part of the monitoring program to
ensure that sediment trapped behind the two dams erodes according
to plan. I’ll talk a little more about this plan in a story I’m
Sunday’s Kitsap Sun.
Olympic National Park’s “Dam
Removal Blog” describes the chipping process, including the use
of shears to cut steel rebar inside the dam. Workers will chip away
a few feet of concrete at a time until reaching the water line. At
that point, notching will begin to carefully control the lowering
of the water level.
Reporter Tom Callis of the
Peninsula Daily News does a nice job describing the start of
the actual work. An accompanying video provides the sounds at the
start of this historic demolition project.
Also, if you haven’t heard, a formal ceremony to commemorate the
removal of two dams on the Elwha River will be shown in a live
webcast beginning at 11 a.m. tomorrow.
The ceremony itself, which will be held near the Elwha Dam, is
limited to 400 invited guests. But anyone may watch from a big
screen at the Port Angeles City Pier or on a special web page
accessed through the Celebrate Elwha! website. The
webcast is sponsored by the law firms SNR Denton and Perkins
Speakers at the ceremony will include Gov. Chris Gregoire; U.S.
senators Patty Murray and Maria Cantwell; U.S. Rep. Norm Dicks,
D-Belfair; Secretary of Interior Ken Salazar; Lower Elwha Klallam
Tribal Chairwoman Frances Charles; and Olympic National Park
Superintendent Karen Gustin. Musicians also will be featured.
Activities will continue Saturday and Sunday in Port Angeles as
part of a weeklong celebration. Live music, artists, food and
educational activities will be featured. For a full schedule of
events, visit the website Celebrate Elwha!
I’m looking forward to watching the two dams on the Elwha River
being dismantled — and I won’t have to leave home.
Sure, I’ll try to make a few trips to Port Angeles and up the
Elwha valley to see what I can see at various times. But webcams
placed in strategic locations may actually be the best view
We won’t be able to judge the quality of the view from the
webcams until they are installed later this month. At least that’s
the proposed timing, according Olympic National Park officials who
are doing their best to help people share the experience of dam
I outlined the options for viewing and information gathering in
a story in
Sunday’s Kitsap Sun. In addition to webcams, park officials are
working to find ways for people to stay connected with the project,
both in person and on-line, as I describe in my story.
Not to leave out fun, culture and education, a weeklong
celebration is being planned about the time the contractor gets the
go-ahead to work in the river on Sept. 15. For a calendar of
events, go to the Celebrate Elwha!
Meanwhile, reporter Lynda Mapes of the
Seattle Times was able to capture the sites and sounds of the
changing environment as the declining water levels reveal
conditions never seen before without scuba gear.