Animal Planet, the cable network, will follow enforcement
officers for the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife in a
new six-part series beginning tomorrow.
“Rugged Justice,” which will premier at 5 p.m., will feature
patrols by officers to protect natural resources in the mountains,
along the coasts and on city streets, according to a news release by WDFW.
Deputy Chief Mike Hobbs said WDFW’s participation will help
promote the department and its dedicated professionals.
“Policing the outdoors presents unique challenges, and this show
helps to inform the public about our critical role in preserving,
protecting and perpetuating fish, wildlife and ecosystems in
Washington,” he said in the news release.
Added Chief Steve Crown, “’Rugged Justice’ provides a window
into the vital, varied and sometimes harrowing work of officers as
they protect nature and people in Washington.”
The series, filmed from September to November, used three film
crews, each with five members, according to a story written by Rob
Owen for the
The WDFW enforcement program includes 144 officers deployed
across the state. None of the officers nor the department received
any compensation from Animal Planet, according to the news
If you miss the 5 p.m. showing tomorrow, Episode 1 will be
repeated at 10 p.m. and midnight. It will also be shown at 6 and 9
p.m. Tuesday and 1 a.m. Wednesday.
The seventh season of “Whale Wars” — a three-hour presentation
premiering on Friday — follows on the heels of an unresolved
contempt-of-court ruling against Sea Shepherd Conservation Society
earlier this month.
The new program, to be shown at 5 p.m. and again at 8 p.m. on
Animal Planet network, documents the 2013-2014 Antarctic whaling
season and the sometimes-violent confrontation between Sea Shepherd
and Japanese whalers. Check out the
While Sea Shepherd faces some serious court rulings, the
Japanese government finds itself in conflict with the International
Court of Justice, which concluded that its “scientific” whaling
program does not conform to scientific principles — which was the
legal justification for the program — so the whaling must stop, at
least for now. See
Water Ways, March 24, 2014.
Paul Watson, founder of Sea Shepherd, appears to have ticked off
the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, which first called his
group a “pirate” operation in December 2012. The court issued an
injunction to keep Sea Shepherd ships at least 500 feet away from
the Japanese whaling vessels. (See
Water Ways, Feb. 26, 2013.)
In its latest ruling on Dec. 19, the court says Watson and Sea
Shepherd’s U.S. board of directors acted contrary to its injunction
by shifting their anti-whaling operations over to the related group
Sea Shepherd, Australia. In the court’s view, Watson should have
done what was necessary to halt the anti-whaling tactics, not find
a way to continue them. As
Judge Milan D. Smith, Jr. wrote in his findings (PDF 127
“Sea Shepherd US’s separation strategy effectively nullified our
injunction by ensuring that OZT (Operation Zero Tolerance)
proceeded unimpeded, in part by using former Sea Shepherd US
assets. Sea Shepherd US ceded control over OZT to Sea Shepherd
Australia and other Sea Shepherd entities it believed to be beyond
the injunction’s reach, knowing these entities were virtually
certain to violate the injunction.
“At the same time, Sea Shepherd US continued to provide
financial and other support for OZT after the injunction by, among
other things, transferring for no consideration a vessel and
equipment worth millions of dollars to Sea Shepherd Australia and
“Rather than instruct its employees to help prevent OZT, Sea
Shepherd US effectively shifted these employees to its affiliates’
payrolls to ensure continued participation in a campaign it knew
was very likely to result in violations of the injunction…
“Our objective in issuing the injunction was to stop Sea
Shepherd from attacking the plaintiffs’ vessels. Sea Shepherd US
thwarted that objective by furnishing other Sea Shepherd entities
with the means to do what it could not after the issuance of the
injunction. It has long been settled law that a person with notice
of an injunction may be held in contempt for aiding and abetting a
party in violating it.”
These court findings were all related to Operation Zero
Tolerance, the Sea Shepherd campaign that ended in March of 2013.
The ruling did not address Operation Relentless, which ended in
March of 2014 and is the subject of Friday’s “Whale Wars” event. I
wonder if Japan will attempt to use the U.S. courts to collect for
damages related to the latest conflict.
The International Court of Justice ruling against the Japanese
whaling operations seems to have had no effect on how the U.S.
Court of Appeals views Sea Shepherd’s actions. Sea Shepherd’s
activities were still illegal, the court ruled, and the injunction
would still be needed if the whaling were to resume under
conditions acceptable to the international court. See
“order denying defendants’ motion to dismiss” (PDF 308 kb).
In fact, although whaling was suspended for the 2014-15 season,
the Japanese government has submitted a new plan
(PDF 2.3 mb) to resume whaling at this time next year. The plan
calls for an annual harvest of 333 minke whales — as opposed to the
previous plan to take 850 minkes, 50 humpbacks and 50 fin whales.
For additional insight on the controversy, read Dennis Normile’s
Science Insider, affiliated with Science magazine.
As for the upcoming “Whale Wars” special, a
news release from Animal Planet says the action will be as
exciting as ever, even with Paul Watson gone from the scene:
“With Captain (Peter) Hammarstedt once again at the helm and
tensions with the whalers at an all-time high, this new campaign
will likely be the most aggressive and dangerous the Sea Shepherds
This episode of “Whale Wars” was produced by Lizard Trading
Company, using raw footage filmed by Sea Shepherd crew members.
That’s similar to the arrangement for last year’s two-hour special.
Water Ways, Nov. 7, 2013.)
The “salmon cannon,” a pneumatic-tube device destined to replace
some fish ladders, got plenty of serious attention this fall from
various news organizations.
You may have seen demonstrations by the inventor, Whoosh Innovations of Bellevue, that
showed adult salmon shooting unharmed through flexible tubes. For
dramatic effect, some videos showed the salmon flying out the end
of the tube and splashing into water. Among those who found the
device amusing were commentators for
“CBS This Morning” and “Red Eye” on
For a laugh, comedian John Oliver recently took the idea in a
different direction, aiming his personal salmon cannon at
celebrities including Jon Stuart, Jimmy Fallon and… Well, if you
haven’t seen the video (above), I won’t spoil it for you.
All this attention has been a surprise for Vince Bryan, CEO for
Whooshh, who told Vancouver
Columbian reporter Eric Florip that he has spoken with hundreds
of news organizations and potential customers from throughout the
“It was a nice boost because it says one thing, that people care
a lot about the fish, and two, that there really is a need,” Bryan
was quoted as saying.
A good description of the potential applications for the “salmon
cannon” was written by reporter Laura Geggel of
Live Science. Meanwhile,
Reuters produced a nice animation showing how the tube works.
And a video on the Whooshh
Innovations YouTube channel, shown below, provides a clear
demonstration how the transport system can work for both humans and
National Marine Fisheries Service has designated more than 1,000
square miles of Puget Sound as “critical habitat” for rockfish — a
colorful, long-lived fish decimated by over-fishing and
In Hood Canal, we know that thousands of rockfish have been
killed by low-oxygen conditions, and their populations have been
slow to recover because of low reproductive rates. Elsewhere,
rockfish are coming back with mixed success, helped in some
locations by marine protected areas.
The final designation of critical habitat was announced today in
Federal Register for yelloweye rockfish and canary rockfish,
both listed as “threatened” under the Endangered Species Act, and
bocaccio, listed as “endangered.”
The critical habitat listing includes 590 square miles of
nearshore habitat for canary rockfish and bocaccio, and 414 square
miles of deepwater habitat for all three species. Nearshore areas
include kelp forests important for the growth and survival of
juvenile rockfish. Deeper waters are used for shelter, food and
reproduction by adults.
Potential critical habitat was reduced by 15 percent for canary
rockfish and bocaccio and by 28 percent for yelloweye rockfish.
Most of the excluded area was deemed already protected, either by
tribes near their reservations or by the military near Navy and
Army bases and their operational areas.
The designated habitat overlaps in large part with existing
critical habitat for salmon, killer whales and bull trout. The only
new areas added without overlap are some deep-water areas in Hood
Under the law, federal actions within designated habitat must
undergo consultations with the National Marine Fisheries Service.
Such actions — which include funding or issuing permits for private
development — cannot be approved if they are found to be
detrimental to the continuing survival of the species.
“Saving rockfish from extinction requires protecting some of the
most important places they live, and that’s exactly what’s
happening now in the Puget Sound. These habitat protections will
not only give rockfish a fighting chance at survival but will help
all of the animals that live in these waters.”
The three species of rockfish were placed on the Endangered
Species List in 2010, following a series of petitions by biologist
Sam Wright. Last year, the Center for Biological Diversity notified
the National Marine Fisheries Service of its
intent to file a lawsuit over the agency’s delay in designating
Federal and state biologists are now working on a recovery plan.
I have not heard whether they still hope to get the plan completed
Rockfish are unusual among bony fishes in that fertilization and
embryo development are internal. Female rockfish give birth to live
young. After birth, the larval rockfish may drift in shallow waters
for several months, feeding on plankton. Among the listed
Canary rockfish can reach up to 2.5 feet in length. Adults have
bright yellow to orange mottling over gray, three orange stripes
across the head and orange fins. They can live to be 75 years
Bocaccio can reach up to 3 feet in length. They have a
distinctively long jaw extending to the eye socket. Adult colors
range from olive to burnt orange or brown. Their age is difficult
to determine, but they may live as long as 50 years.
Yelloweye rockfish can reach up to 3.5 feet in length and 39
pounds in weight. They are orange-red to orange-yellow in color and
may have black on their fin tips. Their eyes are bright yellow.
They are among the longest lived of rockfishes, living up to 118
“These declines have largely been caused by historical fishing
practices, although several other stress factors play a part in
their decline. Rockfish in urban areas are exposed to high levels
of chemical contamination, which may be affecting their
reproductive success. Poor water quality in Hood Canal has resulted
in massive periodic kills of rockfish as well as other species.
Lost or abandoned fishing nets trap and kill large numbers of
The plan identifies these objectives to restore the
Place the highest priority on protecting and restoring the
natural production of indicator rockfishes to healthy levels,
Promote natural production through the appropriate use of
hatcheries and artificial habitats,
Protect and restore all marine habitat types for all rockfish
Manage all Puget Sound fisheries to ensure the health and
productivity of all rockfish stocks,
Protect and restore existing functions of rockfish in the
complex ecosystem and food web in Puget Sound,
Conduct monitoring of indicator stocks to evaluate stock status
and management actions,
Implement new research to understand the diversity, biology and
productivity of indicator rockfish, and
Conduct a strategic outreach and education program to inform
Washington citizens of the value of rockfish stocks and to promote
The recent rains have done the job; the streams have risen; and
chum salmon are moving swiftly into Chico Creek — and probably
other streams on the Kitsap Peninsula.
I stopped by Chico Salmon Viewing Park today and observed chum
in all portions of the stream and moving upstream at the bridge on
Chico Way. The park, where volunteers have made significant
improvements, is adjacent to Kitsap Golf and Country Club. Park
officials say it is OK to walk around the chain-link fence and
enter the park, but please stay on the trails once you are
I also noticed a large number of salmon at the mouth of Chico
Creek, milling around the culvert under Highway 3. The old culvert
on Kittyhawk Drive has been torn out, so it is no longer an
obstacle. The stream channel has been reconfigured to look and
function like a natural stream. See
Kitsap Sun, Aug. 26.
At least a dozen anglers were fishing out beyond the mouth of
the stream, where they should be. Fishers and other observers are
asked to stay on the trail, be careful not to trample recent
plantings, and stay out of the stream channel. No fishing is
allowed upstream of the high-tide mark down on the beach.
I recently wrote about how killer whales of the Salish Sea have
begun to follow the chum salmon into Central and South Puget Sound.
Chum are a primary prey species for the orcas, after chinook runs
Kitsap Sun, Oct. 20.
I have to admit that I still get excited when I see energetic
salmon finding their way upstream, swimming around rocks and logs,
rushing through shallow riffles and hanging out in deep pools. If
you visit the major salmon streams, such as Chico Creek, over the
next week or two, you’ll avoid the smell of rotting salmon that
generally comes later. As for me, I like to watch the salmon during
all portions of the run.
For a map of accessible salmon-viewing locations with videos
that describe each spot, go to Kitsap
Peninsula Salmon Watching. While there, check out the tips for
If anyone gets a decent photo of salmon in the streams, please
send it to my email
address and I’ll post it on this blog. I tried to get photos
today, but I didn’t have enough light.
If you’d like to learn about salmon from fisheries biologists,
consider attending this year’s Kitsap Salmon Tours on Saturday,
Nov. 8, at four locations:
Cowling Creek Center, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., 20345 Miller Bay
Poulsbo Fish Park, 9 a.m. to 2 p.m., on Lindvig Way in Poulsbo,
www.city of poulsbo.com/parks/parks_events.htm.
Chico Salmon Viewing Park, 10 a.m. to 2 p.m., adjacent to
Kitsap Golf and Country Club, www.ext100.wsu.edu/kitsap.
Mountaineers Rhododendron Preserve, 10 a.m. to 1 p.m., with
walking tours at 10 a.m., 11:30 a.m. and 1 p.m.,
A seven-week-old baby orca born to our Southern Resident pods
was reported missing and presumed dead today. This was the newborn
orca who brought so much hope and excitement to our area, being the
first reported birth in more than two years.
When I called Ken Balcomb this morning, he was in a “subjective”
state of mind, as he put it. Ken, of the Center for Whale Research,
has been keeping track of the three Southern Resident pods since
1976, and he’s clearly worried that these whales may be headed for
As we talked on the phone, Ken was peering through the large
windows of his home on San Juan Island and watching a large purse
seine vessel scooping up chum salmon and possibly other species as
“I look at this every day, and I’ve seen this for almost 40
years,” Ken said. “There is no letup on the human part. Virtually
no fish are getting past the outlet. We know the Fraser River runs
are in poor shape, and our management doesn’t seem to take any kind
of ecosystem approach.”
Salmon biologists set the sport and commercial fishing seasons
based on an estimate of the number of fish returning. They update
that estimate during the season based on harvest numbers caught in
“Whatever they are doing, it obviously has not worked, since
we’ve seen run after run not doing well,” Ken said. “I get
subjective about it and wonder when our society is going to do
something to get more prey (for the whales).”
Ken said there was much hope for the seven-week-old orca,
designated L-120, the third known offspring of the 23-year-old
mother designated L-86.
“I was optimistic,” he told me. “When we first saw the baby, it
had a squished-looking head, but even human babies can be born with
a flattened head.
“Within a week, it was filling out well and was energetic,” he
continued, and there was no reason to believe the calf would
The Southern Residents are known to bear a heavy burden of toxic
chemicals, but transient killer whales are even more contaminated.
The difference may be that transients, which eat marine mammals,
may be getting enough food. Was the orca mom unable to nurse her
baby? Did the toxic chemicals cause an immune deficiency? Or was
there another problem? We’ll probably never know.
All three orca pods were probably out in the ocean when the
youngster disappeared. The mom was seen with other whales on
Friday, Saturday and Sunday without the calf — something that would
not happen if the baby were alive.
L-120 was the third calf born to L-86. Her second calf, L-112,
washed up dead at Long Beach in February 2010. After much
investigation, researchers concluded that L-112 had died of blunt
force trauma, but what caused the injury was never determined. Ken
suspects some kind of explosive detonation, although that cause was
discounted by investigators.
Howard Garrett of Orca Network said the orcas have faced a
shortage of food, toxic chemicals, routine shooting with guns and a
series of captures that depleted the population.
“We haven’t treated these magnificent orcas well at all,” Howie
said in a news release. “As a society we are not successfully
restoring this orca community, despite the many warnings and legal
“Our challenge is clear: Bountiful salmon runs must be restored
and protected or we won’t see resident orcas in the Salish Sea in
coming years,” he added.
The latest population count places the total number at 78, the
lowest number since 1986, according to records by the Center of
Unmanned aircraft, commonly known as drones, are taking over the
world. At least it seems that way. If you don’t believe me, search
for “drone” on YouTube. You’ll find amateur aviation specialists —
and a variety of professionals — demonstrating what drones can do.
Some of the things are pretty amusing.
I’ll mention some water-related drone stories below, but the
first video on this page shows a hawk attacking a drone owned and
operated by Christopher Schmidt, a 30-year-old software developer.
I think Chris did a nice job of protecting the bird by throttling
down the props on his Phantom FC40 quadcopter. The final result is
a great up-close view of an angry bird, well deserving of a place
in “Amusing Monday.”
Chris was using the drone to get images of changing leaves in
Magazine Beach Park in Cambridge, Mass., last Wednesday, when he
saw a bird circling a good distance away. The circling continued as
the bird moved closer to the drone.
“Overall,” he told me in an email, “I was surprised by how
quickly he moved from 400 feet away to on top of the quad. When he
was very nearby, my initial thought was, ‘Okay, stay still, so he
can avoid it’ — which obviously didn’t work out for me.”
He said he saw no evidence beforehand that the bird was upset or
likely to attack. Over the six months he owned the drone, nothing
like that had happened, except for a few crows squawking at the
aircraft. After he posted the video, he learned from bird experts
that immature red tail hawks have not yet learned to hunt
efficiently, so they may attack anything that moves.
As the hawk attacked, Chris cut power to the props, which caused
the quad to drop. The bird hit the chopper and it flipped. Chris
was unable to recover the flight, still worried about the bird,
though he powered back up at the end.
“If I had done nothing,” he wrote, “I expect the quadcopter
would have done the flip (which it did) and immediately recover —
possibly losing about
10 feet of altitude. My fear in that case was that the hawk would
see it as a threat and come back a second time. Well, really, it
about a half second, so I was not really thinking that much through
“I still would do the same thing if I had to do it all over,
even if it might have put the quadcopter at less risk.”
As it turns out, the quad sustained almost no damage from
falling out of the sky and hitting the ground, except for a
slightly bent landing gear. And the hawk was no worse for wear.
Lots of media have been using the footage that Chris took. Based
on a suggestion from a coworker, he is donating any money raised
from YouTube ads to the American Audubon Society. Thanks to Gene
Bullock of Kitsap Audobon for alerting me to this video.
OK, so what are some other odd things that drones can do? How
about helping out with an ALS ice bucket challenge? In the second
video, Austin Hill of Spark Aerial uses a massive DJI S1000
Octocopter to lift a bucket of ice water and pour it rather slowly
on his head.
It was only a matter of time before someone got the idea to use
a drone for fishing — no matter how inefficient that might be.
Check out this 7-minute video by
NightFlyer (the action starts about 5 minutes in) or this
shorter 1.5-minute video by
RYOT. Both these guys now have fish stories to tell. But, after
all that work, even they would admit that the fish they caught are
On a more serious note, there are many legal issues related to
drones, which are not yet approved by the Federal Aviation
Administration for commercial use, and there are many concerns
related to privacy. People also are raising questions about whether
drones should ever be used for hunting or fishing. Michael R. Shea
tackles the subject for
“Field and Stream” magazine.
If sportsmen are thinking about using drones, game wardens are
not far behind, as they consider how drones might be used to catch
“National Geographic” looks at the use of drones in high-seas
Meanwhile, Gov. Jay Inslee of Washington vetoed a bill that
would have limited the use of drones by law enforcement. He then
set up a task force to look at the entire subject. A representative
of Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife said in one task
force meeting that there could be applications for enforcement and
research by the agency. The
Unmanned Aircraft Systems Task Force is expected to make
recommendations before next year’s legislative session.
The fish below is known as a fangtooth, a tropical fish found in
the ocean up to 16,000 feet deep. Upon second glance, you will see
a human eye and a chin and realize that you are looking at a very
nice painting on a human head.
The artist is Helena Jordana Skuhrovcov of the Czech Republic.
She is one of several body painters who have joined the protest
against deep-sea bottom trawling in Europe, a campaign sponsored by
LUSH cosmetics and Bloom Association, a marine conservation
Each of the artists involved in the project has painted a
different deep-sea creature to raise awareness about life in the
deep ocean and to call upon European governments to ban deep-sea
“The deep ocean is the largest habitat on the planet – teeming
with all kinds of unique marine life including corals and sponges
that live for hundreds to thousands of years. But deep-sea bottom
trawlers are destroying them, dragging giant weighted nets, cables
and steel plates more than 2 tonnes each across the ocean floor to
catch a small number of low value fish…
“A successful ban would represent a momentous historical
milestone in the fight to protect our deep ocean from unnecessary
destruction. Deep-sea bottom trawling is a capital-intensive,
fuel-greedy, subsidy-dependent fishing method that fails to yield
positive economic results while destroying the natural habitat of
The video below shows some of the artists painting their models
during a tour of Europe earlier this month. It drives home the
theme of the anti-trawling campaign, which has been joined by
numerous celebrities, as shown in a “gallery of
Thanks to Fred Felleman for calling my attention to this
interesting artwork. And, no, I’m not confused about the day of the
week; I just had too much going on yesterday to focus on “Amusing
I’m on vacation this week, but I wanted to revisit a video I
first presented in June of last year. We see fishermen playing a
fish while a killer whale plays the fishermen. I interviewed the
excited man in this video soon after the fishing trip to explain
some of his comments. The video has now been viewed more than 1.2
Frank Sanders is an experienced hunting and fishing guide, yet
he screamed with excitement when he reeled in his fishing line to
find a killer whale at the other end.
The video, posted two weeks ago by Frank’s deckhand Charlie
Barberini, has been viewed more than 800,000 times on YouTube. That
doesn’t count the number of times people watched the original
post and videos copied from the original.
The video has raised numerous questions, such as why Frank is
showing his ring to the camera and looking for someone named Jason.
I was able to reach Frank in Hawaii, where he was on a fishing
trip, and he filled in some of the blanks.
Frank, Charlie and others were fishing for halibut near
Ninilchik in Cook Inlet in Southern Alaska. They had seen a couple
killer whales go by a few times but not close to the boat. I think
Frank told me the orcas were eating sockeye salmon that were in the
area. Suddenly, out of the depths, a killer whale appeared
following the fish on his line.
You need only to see and hear the video to know how much
excitement that generated.
Frank told me the orca did not appear to want the fish. It was
playing with the fishermen in the boat, grabbing the fish, pulling
the line out about 200 yards, then bringing it back. The whale
circled the boat a few times, he said, tangling fishing lines
played out from other poles. This went on for at least 10 minutes
before the whale went on his way.
The whale, of course, had the strength to bite the fish through
and take it away or snap the line any time he chose, Frank said.
But it didn’t.
About his ring, Frank explained that he travels a lot for his
business, Alaska Trophy Hunters. In fact, he is away from his wife
about as much as he is with her, so he sends her hunting and
fishing pictures from all over Alaska and displays his ring for
As for Jason, I didn’t get the full story, but I heard enough to
understand that this, too, was an inside message. Jason is Frank’s
best friend and the best man at his wedding. Jason was in a
four-wheeler accident and suffered a severe brain injury. He was in
a coma for a month but then was getting better. Jason set up a
personal website on “Caring Bridge” to share information back and
forth with his friends and family. Frank wanted Jason to understand
that he was thinking about him during this adventure and was
showing him a special bracelet they shared. Unfortunately, Jason
suffered a stroke and may not pull through. (Update, June 24,
11 a.m.: I just received word from Frank this morning that Jason
passed away yesterday.)
After the video was posted, Frank reportedly told reporter Lydia
Warren of London’s
“Fishing gets kind of repetitive after 18 years, but this is one
of the most exciting things that has happened to me.”
A highly informative map, just released by state shellfish
officials, can show you at a glance where it is safe to harvest
shellfish in Western Washington.
Besides pointing out the locations of public beaches where
recreational harvesters may safely gather clams and oysters, the
map provides links to information about the approved
seasons and limits, with photographs of each beach. One can choose
“map” or “satellite” views, as well as enhanced images to simplify
If you wish, you can track down locations by searching for the
name of a beach, nearby landmarks or the address. You can obtain
the latest information about entire shorelines as well as specific
The map was created by the Office of Shellfish and Water
Protection, a division within the Washington State Department of
Jim Zimny, recreational shellfish specialist at Kitsap Public
Health District, said he expects the map to be updated immediately
when new health advisories are issued.
“It’s a great resource, very easy to use,” Jim said.
Jim works with state shellfish officials to collect shellfish
samples and report results, including findings of paralytic
shellfish poison, a biotoxin. Closures are announced when high
levels of PSP or dangerous bacteria are found. Hood Canal, for
example, is covered with the letter “V,” meaning one should cook
shellfish thoroughly to kill Vibrio bacteria, which can lead to
Since I generally write the geographic descriptions of shellfish
closure areas, I can assure you that looking at a map will be a
better way to see what is going on.
A news release about the new map points out that
the risk of eating shellfish increases in summer. That’s why it
especially important in summer to follow the three C’s of shellfish
safety: “check, chill and cook.”
Those three C’s refer to checking the map for health closures
and looking on the beach for warning signs; chilling the shellfish
to avoid a buildup of bacteria; and cooking to 145 degrees to kill
pathogens. (Cooking does not destroy PSP and other biotoxins, so
it’s important to avoid closed areas.)