Category Archives: Plants

You can join the search for beetles that threaten Washington trees

Washington state property owners and people with swimming pools are being urged to become part of a defensive initiative to protect trees from invasive beetles.

August is National Tree Check Month, and at least four state agencies are asking tree owners this month to take a 10-minute walk around their property to look for insects that don’t belong in our region.

Nationwide, more than a third of all insect invasions are first detected by average people, according to Justin Bush, executive coordinator of the Washington Invasive Species Council. Heading off an invasion before it gets started could save untold millions of dollars worth of trees, as well as the costs of battling a spreading insect invasion.

Citrus longhorned beetle
Photo: USDA Plant Protection Service, Bugwood.org

This is the second year that Washington state agencies are bringing the message home from other states where many longtime tree populations have been decimated by insects, including the citrus longhorned beetle and the emerald ash borer.

“While we don’t have these two invasive insects right now, we could get them at any moment,” Justin told me. “We want people to help us look for them.”

This year, state officials also are asking people who own swimming pools and ponds to join in the defensive effort, as some of invasive insects end up in the water and die. A swimming pool owner or maintenance person should take note of any unusual insects found in pool filters or among debris skimmed off the surface of the water, he said. On the East Coast, swimming pool owners are often able to spot invasive beetles even before they show up in traps designed to attract them.

It would be helpful if people would look for invasive insects all year long, Justin said, but August is a good time to place a special emphasis on the effort, because this is the time that most wood-boring insects emerge as adults.

Emerald ash borer
Photo: Debbie Miller, U.S. Forest Service, Bugwood.org

Identifying specific species of beetles is often difficult, Justin acknowledged. The best advice is to take pictures of the insect from several angles and send the photos to the Invasive Species Council, InvasiveSpecies@rco.wa.gov, which will find an expert to identify the bug.

People shouldn’t hesitate to send photos, Justin said. “If it comes to us, we can figure it out.”

Another reporting method is to download the “WA Invasives” app to send photos and location data straight from your smart phone. See WISC download page. The app also includes photos and information for identifying invasive species.

When emailing, one should include contact information, including a phone number, along with the location of the insect sighting. (An address or cross-street description would be helpful.) Details about the tree species should be included as well.

If you obtain one of the beetles, you should keep it in case an expert wants to inspect the specimen. Another option is to take the beetle to a local office of WSU Extension, which can forward it to appropriate experts.

The citrus longhorned beetle, a close relative of the disastrous Asian longhorned beetle, is a major concern on the West Coast. The beetle can feed on a variety of hardwood trees, including apple, maple, oak, willow, alder and popular. When they emerge, they leave an exit hole about 5/8-inch in diameter in the tree.

In 2001, the citrus longhorned beetle was found in Tukwila, where it arrived in a shipment of bonsai trees. Three beetles were recovered from the bonsai trees but five others were seen flying away. Nearly 1,000 trees were cut and chipped within one-eighth mile from the location site, and another 1,500 trees farther away were treated with insecticide. The last beetle was seen in the fall of 2002, and a quarantine remained in effect until 2006. See U.S. Department of Agriculture website.

Because of heavy shipping from Asian ports, concerns remain high that damaging beetles will be imported to the West Coast, Justin said. Insects could also arrive from infested areas back East, which is the primary route for European gypsy moths brought into Washington state in moving vans. This state’s gypsy moth eradication program — including nearly 100 local battles since 1979 (PDF 307 kb) — has kept the damaging moths from establishing a permanent foothold in this state.

Besides the citrus longhorned beetle, officials are concerned that the emerald ash borer could devastate ash trees in this state. The exit holes in ash trees are about a quarter-inch in diameter and have a distinctive “D” shape. Ash trees are common in urban areas, and the beetles apparently have been moving westward as campers bring firewood from eastern areas. The beetle was recently discovered in Boulder, Colo.

State agencies involved in the effort to track down the invasive beetles are the Invasive Species Council, Department of Agriculture, Department of Natural Resources and Washington State University Extension.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture offers information on these and other invasive insects:

Amusing Monday: Odd and colorful species make top-10 list for ’17

A newly named stingray that lives in freshwater has joined an omnivorous rat and a couple of leggy wormlike creatures as part of the Top-10 New Species for 2017.

Sulawesi root rat
Photo: Kevin Rowe, Museums Victoria

The top-ten list, compiled by the College of Environmental Science and Forestry (ESF) at the State University of New York, also includes a tiny spider found in India, a katydid discovered in Malaysia and a spiny ant from Papua New Guinea. Two interesting plants also made the list.

It’s often amusing to learn how various critters are first discovered and ultimately how they are named — sometimes for fictional characters with similar characteristics.

ESF President Quentin Wheeler, who founded the International Institute for Species Exploration, said nearly 200,000 new species have been discovered since the top-10 list was started a decade ago.

“This would be nothing but good news were it not for the biodiversity crisis and the fact that we’re losing species faster than we’re discovering them,” he said. “The rate of extinction is 1,000 times faster than in prehistory. Unless we accelerate species exploration, we risk never knowing millions of species or learning the amazing and useful things they can teach us.”

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Learning to create small habitats in Kitsap, Thurston, Pierce counties

Marianne Jackson, a personal trainer and yoga teacher, lives in a fairly typical residential neighborhood in Des Moines, about halfway between Seattle and Tacoma. Marianne has been interested in gardening for years. Recently, however, she decided to up her game by creating a backyard wildlife habitat.

A flowering currant in Marianne Jackson’s garden is a native plant that is good for birds. She says hummingbirds love it.
Photo: Marianne Jackson

That’s when Sarah Bruemmer, a habitat steward coordinator for the National Wildlife Federation, entered Marianne’s life. Sarah knows how to turn small outdoor spaces — or large ones, if available — into functioning habitats. She coordinates a training program that addresses issues from soils, gardening and invasive plants to birds, butterflies and water quality.

Sarah’s month-long program, which includes weekly classes with two Saturday field trips, is scheduled for April in Kitsap and Thurston counties and May in Pierce County. Only a few seats remain for the Kitsap training to be held in Silverdale.

Marianne, 56, took the course last year and came away with a much deeper knowledge of the ecosystem. She had already ripped out her grassy lawn years ago to create what became a series of connected gardens, but the classes taught her how native plant species and water features can help native birds and butterflies.

“I already had the interest,” she said. “Now I have a lot more knowledge that I can put to use. I’m planning to get my yard certified.”

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Amusing Monday: Science is music when data becomes sound

Nearly everyone who deals in scientific information learns to read simple charts and graphs to help visualize the data. As a reporter, I’m often looking for the right graph to bring greater meaning to a story. In a similar way, some people have been experimenting with rendering data into sound, and some of the more musically inclined folks have been creating songs with notes and musical scales.

As with graphs, one must understand the conceptual framework before the meaning becomes clear. On the other hand, anyone can simply enjoy the music — or at least be amused that the notes themselves are somehow transformed from observations of the real world.

The first video on this page, titled “Bloom,” contains a “song” derived from microorganisms found in the English Channel. The melody depicts the relative abundance of eight different types of organisms found in the water as conditions change over time. Peter Larsen, a biologist at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois, explains how he created the composition to Steve Curwood, host of the radio program “Living on Earth.”

      1. Living on Earth

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Extensive floodplain restoration brings new hope to Clear Creek

A giant piece of a cedar log stands erect in a barren landscape north of Silverdale, where a new channel for Clear Creek stands ready to receive water.

An old cedar log was recovered during excavation for a new channel for Clear Creek. Photo: Dunagan
An old cedar log was recovered during excavation for a new channel for Clear Creek.
Photo: Christopher Dunagan

Well, maybe this channel won’t be entirely new. Designers working to restore this portion of Clear Creek studied old maps. They tried to align the new man-made channel to the meandering stream that existed 150 years ago, before farmers diverted the creek around their fields.

During excavation, workers uncovered buried gravel — remnants of the old streambed — along with chunks of cedar that had lain along the edge of the stream. Buried and cut off from oxygen, these pieces of wood survived for decades underground, while cattle grazed in the fields above.

Workers excavating for the new channel used their heavy equipment to pull out what remained of a great cedar log. They stood the log vertical and buried one end in the ground — a monument to the past and future of Clear Creek.

A restored Clear Creek floodplain (before plantings) north of Waaga Way in Central Kitsap. Photo: Kitsap County Public Works
A restored Clear Creek floodplain (before plantings) north of Waaga Way in Central Kitsap.
Photo: Kitsap County Public Works

Chris May, manager of Kitsap County’s stormwater program, showed me the new channel this week. He said it was rewarding to uncover some buried history and realize that the stream would be restored in roughly the same place.

“We found the old channel,” Chris told me, pointing to a deposit of gravel. “We are pretty confident that we got it right.”

This $3-million project has been conceived and designed as much more than a stream-restoration project. The elevations of the land around the stream have been carefully planned so that high flows will spill into side channels and backwater pools. That should reduce flooding in Silverdale and help stabilize the high and low flows seen in Clear Creek.

Before photo: This was the farmers field as it appeared before restoration. Photo: Kitsap County Public Works
Before photo: This was the farm field as it appeared before restoration. // Photo: Kitsap County Public Works

The engineers did not calculate the reduced frequency of flooding, but floodwater storage is calculated to be 18.4 acre-feet, the equivalent of a foot of water spread over 18.4 acres or 29,700 cubic yards or 6 million gallons.

In all, about 30,000 cubic yards of material have been removed across 21 acres, including the former Schold Farm on the west side of Silverdale Way and the Markwick property on the east side. Native wetland vegetation will be planted along the stream and in low areas throughout the property. Upland areas will be planted with natural forest vegetation.

The topsoil, which contained invasive plants such as reed canarygrass, was hauled away and buried beneath other excavated soils to form a big mound between the new floodplain and Highway 3. That area will be planted with a mixture of native trees.

Graphic showing area before restoration. Graphic: Kitsap County Public Works
Graphic showing area before restoration.
Graphic: Kitsap County Public Works

Plans call for removal of 1,500 feet of an existing road with upgrades to two aging culverts. Adding meanders to the straightened channel will create 500 feet of new streambed that should be suitable for salmon spawning.

Plans call for adding 334 pieces large woody debris, such as logs and root wads to the stream. Some of that wood will be formed into structures and engineered logjams to help form pools and gravel bars.

Graphic showing area after restoration. Graphic: Kitsap County Public Works
Graphic showing area after restoration. Notice stream meanders near beaver pond habitat
Graphic: Kitsap County Public Works

“This will be one of the first streams to meet the Fox and Bolton numbers,” Chris told me, referring to studies by Martin Fox and Susan Bolton of the University of Washington. The two researchers studied natural streams and calculated the amount of woody debris of various kinds needed to simulate natural conditions, all based on the size of a stream. (Review North American Journal of Fisheries Management.)

The elevations on the property were also designed so that high areas on opposite sides of the stream would be in close proximity in several locations.

“Beaver will pick that spot,” Chris said, pointing to one location where the stream channel was squeezed by elevated banks on each side. “We want to encourage beaver to come in here.”

Beaver ponds will increase the floodwater storage capacity of the new floodplain and provide important habitat for coho salmon, which spend a year in freshwater and need places to withstand both high and low flows. Because the county owns the flooded property, there won’t be any complaints about damage from beavers, Chris noted.

Aerial photo showing project area with Silverdale in the background, Silverdale Way to the left and Highway 3 to the right. Photo: Kitsap County Public Works
Aerial photo showing project area with Silverdale in the background, Silverdale Way to the left and Highway 3 to the right. // Photo: Kitsap County Public Works

Clear Creek Trail (PDF 390 kb), which begins on the shore of Dyes Inlet, will be routed along the higher elevations as the trail winds through the property. Three new bridges will provide vantage points to watch salmon after vegetation obscures other viewing areas from the trail. Viewing platforms, as seen along other parts of Clear Creek Trail, were not included in this project but could be subject to further discussions.

Count me among the many people — experts, volunteers and users of Clear Creek Trail — who are eager to see how nature responds when water (now diverted) returns to the new stream channel. For decades, the lack of good habitat has constrained the salmon population in Clear Creek. The stream still has problems related to its highly developed watershed. But now a series of restoration projects is providing hope for increased coho and chum salmon and possibly steelhead trout as well as numerous other aquatic species.

In a story in the Kitsap Sun, Reporter Tristan Baurick described work this week on the Markwick property, where fish were removed in preparation for final channel excavation.

Here are some details (including photos) of various Clear Creek projects, as described in the state’s Habitat Work Schedule for restoration projects:

Washington Department of Ecology provided $2 million for the project. Kitsap County’s stormwater and roads programs each provided $500,000.

Amusing Monday: Ten new species with their own stories to tell

An international team of taxonomists has chosen the “Top 10 New Species of 2016” from among some 18,000 new species named in 2015.

They include a hominin in the same genus as humans and an ape nicknamed “Laia” that might provide clues to the origin of humans, according to information provided by the College of Environmental Science and Forestry at the State University of New York, which compiles the list each year.

The list also includes a newly identified giant Galapagos tortoise, two fish, a beetle named after a fictional bear, and two plants — a carnivorous sundew considered endangered as soon as it was discovered and a tree hiding in plain sight, states a news release from ESF.

The annual list of the top 10 new species was established in 2008 to call attention to the fact that thousands of new species are being discovered each year, while other species are going extinct at least as fast.

“The rate of description of species is effectively unchanged since before World War II,” said Quintin Wheeler, ESF president. “The result is that species are disappearing at a rate at least equal to that of their discovery.

“We can only win this race to explore biodiversity if we pick up the pace,” he said. “In so doing we gather irreplaceable evidence of our origins, discover clues to more efficient and sustainable ways to meet human needs and arm ourselves with fundamental knowledge essential for wide-scale conservation success.”

The top-10 list, compiled by the International Institute for Species Exploration, is a colorful sampling of the new species being named by taxonomists. The list comes out each year around Mary 23 — the birthday of Carolus Linnaeus, an 18th century botanist considered the father of modern taxonomy.

Descriptions of the “Top 10 New Species of 2016” are taken from information provided by ESF, which permitted use of the photographs. Additional information and photos can be found by following the links below.

Giant Tortoise

Chelonoidis donfaustoi

Eastern Santa Cruz Tortoise Photo: Washington Tapia
Eastern Santa Cruz Tortoise // Photo: Washington Tapia

A research team working in the Galapagos Archipelago of Ecuador has discovered that two species of giant tortoises — not just one — co-exist on the island of Santa Cruz. The discovery comes 185 years after Charles Darwin noted that slight variations in the shells of tortoises could distinguish which island they were from, which is among the evidence Darwin used in his theory of evolution.

Giant Sundew

Drosera magnifica

Giant sundew Photo: Paulo M. Gonella
Giant sundew // Photo: Paulo M. Gonella

This particiular giant sundew, a carnivorous plant, is the largest sundew ever found in the New World. It is believed to be the first species of plant discovered through a photograph on Facebook. It is considered critically endangered, since it is known to live in only one place in the world, the top pf a 5,000-foot mountain in Brazil.

Hominin

Homo naledi

Homo naledi Photo: John Hawks, Wits University
Homo naledi // Photo: John Hawks, Wits University

Fossil remains of at least 15 individuals makes this the largest collection of a single species of hominin ever found on the African continent. Once the age of the bones is determined, the finding will have implications for the branch of the family tree containing humans.

Photos and description

Isopod

Iuiuniscus iuiuensis

Isopod Photo: Souza, Ferreira & Senna
Isopod // Photo: Souza, Ferreira & Senna

This tiny amphibious crustacean, discovered in a South American cave, represents a new subfamily, genus and species of isopod with a behavior never seen before in its family group: It builds shelters of mud.

Anglerfish

Lasiognathus dinema

Angler fish Photo Ted Pietsch, University of Washington
Angler fish // Photo Ted Pietsch, University of Washington

This two-inch anglerfish — with its odd fishing-pole-like structure dangling in front — was discovered in the Gulf of Mexico by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration while assessing natural resource damages from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. The dangling structure, called an esca, is home to symbiotic bacteria that produce light in the darkness of the deep ocean and is presumably used to catch prey.

Photos and description

Seadragon

Phyllopteryx dewysea

Ruby seadragon Image: Josefin Stiller, Nerida Wilson and Greg Rouse
Ruby seadragon skeleton
Image: Josefin Stiller, Nerida Wilson and Greg Rouse

The ruby red seadragon, related to sea horses, is only the third known species of sea dragon. At 10 inches long and living in relatively shallow water off the West Coast of Australia, it is notable for having escaped notice so long. The ruby seadragon was first identified while testing museum specimens for genetics, then the hunt was on for a living sample.

Beetle

Phytotelmatrichis osopaddington

Tiny beetle Photo: Michael Darby
Tiny beetle // Photo: Michael Darby

The scientific name of this tiny beetle, just 1/25th of an inch long, comes from the fictional Paddington Bear, a lovable character in children’s books who showed up at Paddington Station in London with a sign that read, “Please look after this bear.” The researchers hope the name for the new beetle will call attention to the plight of the “threatened” Andean spectacled bear, which inspired the Paddington books. The beetle is found in pools of water that accumulate in the hollows of plants in Peru, where the bear also is found.

Primate

Pliobates cataloniae

Artists recreation of new primate Image: Mar􀀯a Palmero, Institut Catalá de Paleontologia Miquel (ICP)
Artist recreation of new primate // Image: Marta Palmero, Institut Catalá de Paleontologia Miquel (ICP)

An ape nicknamed “Laia” lived about 11.6 million years ago in what is now Spain, climbing trees and eating fruit. She lived before the lineage containing humans and great apes diverged from a sister branch that contains the gibbons. Her discovery raises the prospect that early humans could be more closely related to gibbons than to the great apes.

Flowering tree

Sirdavidia solannona

Open flower and buds on new tree Photo: Thomas Couvreur
Open flower on new tree // Photo: Thomas Couvreur

Found near the main road in Monts de Cristal National Park, in Gabon, this new tree species had been overlooked for years in inventories of local trees, which tended to focus on larger specimens. The tree grows to only about 20 feet high and is so different from related members of the Annonaceae family of flowering plants that it was given its own genus.

Damselfly

Umma Gumma

Male damselfly Photo: Jens Kipping
Male damselfly // Photo: Jens Kipping

This new damselfly, called the sparklewing, is among an extraordinary number of new damselflies discovered in Africa, with 60 species reported in one publication alone. Most of the new species are so colorful and distinct that they can be identified solely from photographs. The name Umma Gumma was taken from the 1969 Pink Floyd album, “Ummagumma,” which is British slang for sex.

Amusing Monday: Blake Shelton partakes of sushi with Jimmy Fallon

Country music star Blake Shelton thought his cup of sake tasted like “Easter egg coloring,” but he kept on asking for more of the rice wine at the Japanese sushi restaurant he was visiting.

“Tonight Show” host Jimmy Fallon convinced Blake to go with him to the restaurant, because Blake had never tried sushi. With cameras rolling, Jimmy demonstrated the finer points of eating the various offerings, but at times Blake seemed to have the upper hand.

Blake’s enjoyment of the experience appears somewhat mixed, as you can see in the first video, but the situation was amusing.

The second video describes a practical joke that the Japanese people have allegedly been pulling on Australians, although they are not the only people in the world to have fallen for this long-running practical joke. I was unable to locate the original producer of the video, but it has been posted numerous times the past few years. I’ve posted the earliest version I could find.

The Japanese people apparently can find amusement in some of their own cultural traditions. Numerous videos called “The Japanese Tradition” were created by the comedy duo of Jin Katagirl and Kentaro Kobayashi, who call themselves the Rahmens. In their short videos, they make light of customs from chopsticks to games. Someone named Frank Prins collected a bunch of these videos and posted them on his YouTube channel.

I’ve posted one of videos with English subtitles called “The Japanese Tradition — Sushi,” which covers the entire experience at a Sushi bar. Another amusing version of this video comes with an English voice narrating the piece. The narrator writes on YouTube that he re-edited the video and tweaked the humor to make it more appealing to a Western audience.

“The Japanese culture is something I have absolutely fallen in love with, and I intend no disrespect by any of the jokes used in the video,” states the unidentified narrator. The reviews were mixed about whether it was appropriate to alter the original.

Elwha River:
a continuing march
on the way to renewal

It has always been a question to ponder: Will the most significant changes to the Elwha River ecosystem occur upstream of where two dams have been removed or downstream where the river enters the Strait of Juan de Fuca?

Photo: Olympic National Park
Photo: Olympic National Park

Soon after each dam was torn down in succession — the lower one first — salmon began migrating upstream, while more than 30 million cubic yards of sediment began moving downstream.

It could take a number of years to rebuild the extensive runs of salmon, including the prized chinook for which the Elwha was famous among salmon fishermen across the country. Will we ever see the legendary 100-pound chinook return to the Elwha, assuming they ever existed? That was a question I explored in a story for the Kitsap Sun in September 2010.

On the other hand, massive amounts of sediment have already spilled out of the Elwha River, building an extensive delta of sand and gravel, including about 80 acres of new habitat and two miles of sandy beach.

Reporter Tristan Baurick focused on the dramatic shoreline changes already taking place at the mouth of the Elwha in a well-written story published in Sunday’s Kitsap Sun.

The Coastal Watershed Institute, which is monitoring the shoreline near the mouth of the Elwha has documented increases in critical forage fish populations, including surf smelt, sand lance, eulachon (candlefish) and longfin smelt. See CWI Blog. These fish feed a host of larger fish, birds and marine mammals.

Tristan describes the changes offshore, where an area starved of sediment is turning into prime habitat for starry flounder, Dungeness crab and many other animals. Rocky outcroppings that once provided attachment for bull kelp is giving way to fine sand, which allows for colonization by eelgrass and a host of connected species. I described some of the early changes in the flora in a Kitsap Sun story in March of 2013.

For people to view the restoration first-hand, I described a day trip to the Elwha in a Kitsap Sun story in April of 2013. Along the way, you can check out the history, enjoy the vantage points and learn about the changes taking place. Tristan offers a suggestion worth heeding to ensure ongoing beach access.

“Access to the beach is granted by the dike’s owners. They could take that away if the area’s overwhelmed with trash, noise and other nuisances, so keep that in mind when you visit.”

If you’d like to see a video record of dam removal and ecosystem recovery, you may wish to view the film “Return of the River” to be shown at Bremerton’s Admiral Theatre on Friday, March 13. The film will be followed by a panel discussion involving the film’s producers, John Gussman and Jessica Plumb. For details, check the Kitsap Sun website.

Making amends for mistakes that damaged our natural world

Preservation is cheaper than restoration. If you need proof, one place to look is the Beard’s Cove estuary-restoration project on Hood Canal, about a mile outside of Belfair.

The project, nearing completion, is re-establishing 7.3 acres of saltwater wetlands by excavating and removing about 4,000 dumptruck loads of old fill dirt from an area originally built as a private park for the Beard’s Cove community.

Belfair and Lynch Cove as depicted on this map created in 1884 by the U.S. Office of Coast Survey. Colors were added, and the label “1973 fill area” shows the site of the current restoration. Image: Beard’s Cove restoration file.
Belfair and Lynch Cove as depicted on a map created in 1884 by the U.S. Office of Coast Survey. Colors were added, and the label “1973 fill area” shows the site of the current restoration.
Image: Beard’s Cove restoration file

It is a rare restoration project, because essentially the same dirt used to fill the wetlands in 1973 is being taken out and put back where it came from — across North Shore Road from the development. The cost is estimated at $1.1 million, as reported by Arla Shephard in a story in the Kitsap Sun.

Filling in the salt marsh was part of the development plan for the Beard’s Cove plat, approved by the Mason County commissioners a few years before construction began. The voter-approved Shoreline Management Act and other environmental regulations were just coming on the scene.

Hood Canal Environmental Council, a fledgling group at the time, testified against the Beard’s Cove project. Phil Best, a young lawyer who would later become Kitsap County commissioner, was a founder of that organization.

“We were concerned that this project would set a precedent,” Phil told me. “If you start filling in all these marsh areas, you would be destroying a lot of salmon habitat throughout Hood Canal.”

Although scientists today know much more about the value of estuaries, Phil said there was plenty of evidence at the time about the damage that would be caused by this kind of project. Much of the scientific information was provided by researchers at the University of Washington’s Big Beef Creek Research Station. That facility, near Seabeck in Kitsap County, is still used for salmon research.

In the end, the Beard’s Cove developer prevailed with the county commissioners and the courts, and the fill was dumped into the estuary to create a park. Today, of course, a project like this would not even get off the drawing board.

Aerial photo from 1973 during construction of the Beard’s Cove development, a portion of which was built on fill going out into Hood Canal. Image: Beard’s Cove restoration file.
Aerial photo from 1973 during construction of the Beard’s Cove development, a portion of which was built on fill going out into Hood Canal.
Image: Beard’s Cove restoration file.

“We’re finally getting to where things should be,” Phil said, “but it is unfortunate that we have to spend millions of taxpayer dollars, when the permit for this should have been denied in the first place. There is a lesson to be learned here: It is better to err on the side of caution when it comes to environmental issues.”

For every restoration project we know about, someone could have avoided the cost by not doing the damage in the first place. We must recognize that we are paying for many mistakes made by our forefathers.

At the same time, we must face the fact that — despite all we have learned — we are still doing damage to the ecosystem. Some damage is inevitable, as more development is needed to accommodate a growing population. But we should be as careful as we can, so our descendants don’t have to undo what we have done.

The alternative, of course, is far more dreadful. If we cannot turn the tide on our ecological destruction and find a way to live within the natural world, Puget Sound is doomed to ecological collapse. Future generations might live on a large, sterile pond and wonder what it once was like. They might as well live on the moon.

The 540 or more families who live in the Beard’s Cove Community today had nothing to do with the mistakes that were made. Who could blame them for using the park and swimming pool developed for their use? People who grew up in Beard’s Cove cherish the memories of that park. I would suggest that it is of little value to blame anyone for past mistakes, since society as a whole sanctioned all sorts of activities that we would not allow today.

The Beard’s Cove community should be congratulated for breaking with the past and allowing the restoration to take place. It may be true that the decision was easier after the park fell into disrepair. Someone apparently destroyed the old swimming pool by draining it during an extreme high tide, causing it to “float” up out of the ground — or so the story goes, says Louena “Louie” Yelverton, president of the Beard’s Cove Community Organization.

Louie says the community supports the restoration of the marsh and looks forward to seeing a more natural shoreline.

“it is nice to be part of a restoration project, realizing that this is a small part of a 700-acre project that is going to help salmon,” she said. “As a society, we are starting to learn that we need to give forethought to the future. It might not affect us, but it will be there for our grandkids and future generations. I am glad to be part of this.”

Louie credits Kate Kuhlman of Great Peninsula Conservancy for helping to generate goodwill in the community. Her concerns for the people as well as the steadfast promotion of the science helped get the project to construction. GPC coordinated the grants to get the work done with some land left for community use.

“She has been a trooper through everything,” Louie said. “Now we are going to have a park, and the shoreline is going to be good for salmon. I am super-excited that we are toward the end of this and will get to see what all the hard work has accomplished.”

Wetlands along the North Shore of Hood Canal have been undergoing protection and restoration for 30 years. This is where I chose to write the opening chapter of the book “Hood Canal: Splendor at Risk.”

The Beard’s Cove project, including a permanent conservation easement, fills in the final gap in a full 1.7 miles of unbroken estuarine habitat to be preserved in perpetuity, thanks to GPC and its North Mason predecessor, Hood Canal Land Trust, along with Pacific Northwest Salmon Center, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the North Mason School District.

The project includes the construction of 2,530 feet of newly formed tide channels, 1,200 feet of graveled beach and large woody debris habitat structures.

Marsh areas like this are among the most productive places on the planet, supporting a rich food web that includes salmon species such as Puget Sound chinook, Puget Sound steelhead and Hood Canal summer chum, all listed as “threatened” on the Endangered Species List.

Search intensifies
for remaining
spartina invaders

Rain and shine. Rain and shine. Rain and shine.

These are the days of near-perfect growing conditions for plants in Western Washington. If you are battling noxious weeds, it might seem as if the weather is working against you, favoring these destructive invaders along with other plants.

Crews removing spartina from Tulalip Bay. Dept. of Agriculture photo
Crews remove spartina from Tulalip Bay.
Washington Department of Agriculture photo

But one team of weed warriors, hoping to eradicate an invasive plant called spartina, sees this growing season another way. Instead of hindering the eradication effort, this rapid growth of spartina — also known as cordgrass — makes it easier to locate and eliminate the last of the invaders.

“The bad thing is you get a lot more plants than you expect,” said Chad Phillips, spartina coordinator for the Washington State Department of Agriculture. “The good thing is that a lot of the plants you might not have seen (in a normal year) have germinated, so you can get rid of them.”

Over the past 12 years, the total estimated acreage occupied by spartina in Washington state has been reduced from 9,000 acres to just eight acres. It has been a coordinated effort involving local, state and federal agencies; tribal governments; universities; private landowners; and many volunteers.

The search-and-destroy mission will continue, because the plants have a way of coming back, sometimes showing up in new locations.

Left unchecked, spartina spreads rapidly, crowding out native vegetation while converting ecologically important mudflats into meadows choked with a hardy marsh grass. Besides wrecking shellfish beds, spartina wipes out shoreline habitat for shorebirds and waterfowl while increasing the risk of flooding, experts say.

Those involved in the spartina effort this year are expected to look for spartina plants — and eliminate any they find — over more than 80,000 acres of saltwater estuaries and 1,000 miles of shoreline in 12 counties.

Spartina_map

After working for years in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, spartina crews turned their focus last year to Puget Sound, where about 90 percent of the remaining spartina-infested acreage can be found. The map on this page uses black triangles to depict areas where spartina has been eradicated.

When crews go into an area, they remove all the plants they can find. Individual plants or clusters of plants can be dug by hand, whereas larger infestations may be treated with herbicide.

Crews typically return to a given site twice in a year. A site is considered eradicated if no plants are seen for at least three years with a minimum of six surveys. After that, they will typically return once a year to make sure the plants don’t come back.

The crews are scheduled to visit every shoreline at least once every five years to look for any new infestations of spartina.

The workers obtain permission from property owners before removing or killing plants. But often the neighbors are unaware of what they are doing. Chad said it is not unusual for neighbors to approach crew members to ask why they are there. Sometimes, the crews are suspected of being shellfish poachers.

“If you see us working, feel free to come over and say ‘hi,’” Chad said. “We’ll be on a beach in knee boots with a shovel.”

In Kitsap County, the largest infestation has been at Doe-Kag-Wats, an estuary on the Port Madison Indian Reservation north of Indianola in North Kitsap. After years of removing truckloads of vegetation, the total infestation there was down to 61 square feet last year.

Another infested area has been Foulweather Bluff near Hansville, where 24 square feet of spartina were removed.

Areas considered active because of recent infestations but where no plants were found last year are Manzanita Bay on Bainbridge Island and Coon Bay near Manchester.

Mason and Thurston are the only counties that have never had an infestation, but beaches in those counties remain part of the ongoing five-year survey cycle.

In Puget Sound, most of the spartina found has been identified as the species Spartina anglica, or common cordgrass. This species was introduced to Snohomish County in 1961. The largest infestation in the state today is an area in South Skagit Bay and Port Susan near Stanwood.

Bays on the Pacific Ocean contain primarily Spartina alterniflora, known as smooth cordgrass or saltmarsh cordgrass. It was introduced to Willapa Bay in the late 1800s, eventually spreading to 8,500 acres. Since 2003, about 99.9 percent of that spartina acreage has been killed or removed, making it one of the largest eradications of an invasive species anywhere in the country.

Spartina patens, known as saltmeadow cordgrass or salt marsh hay, is a native of the Atlantic Coast. It was discovered in the 1990s at Dosewallips State Park on Hood Canal. Dosewallips held the only known infestation of S. patens in Washington state until 2013, when a survey crew found the plant on Navy property on the Toandos Peninsula across from the Bangor submarine base. After receiving permission, the site was treated in 2014. Ongoing efforts will be necessary, as the invasive plant blends in well with native marsh plants.

For a description of the spartina infestations and treatments in each county, check out the “2014 Progress Report” (PDF 41 mb) for the Spartina Eradication Program.