Removal of the Elwha Dam and drawdown of Lake Aldwell behind it
have gone faster than originally planned, and now the story of the
Elwha River restoration becomes a story of erosion. Experts are
watching the sediment movement very closely.
The Elwha Dam has been entirely removed down to the river bed
(see photos below), and the river is now flowing in its original
channel, where it will remain. The river is being held back mainly
by a “check dam” of boulders. At the moment, the drawdown has been
halted at 133 feet elevation for a scheduled two-week holding
Andy Ritchie, restoration project hydrologist with Olympic
National Park, says the pause in drawdown will allow the river to
snake around to redistribute the sediment more evenly across the
valley. The final target elevation for the river bed is 100
Drawdown of Lake Mills, behind the upper Glines Canyon Dam, also
is on hold at the moment. Even more sediment is trapped behind that
dam. While project managers have largely lost control over the
movement of sediment behind the lower dam, the upper dam remains
intact enough to control migration of sediment from farther up the
As the weather improves this spring (or at least we can hope),
it may be time for many of us to visit the former lake beds at the
two dams. We can walk out onto the deltas and see the new
vegetation starting to grow. Lake Aldwell’s delta can be reached
from the old boat launch. For Lake Mills, take Whiskey Bend Road,
which has been reopened, and you will come to Humes Ranch trailhead
with access from there.
In a report last night on KING-5 News, Gary Chittim offered a
visually rich account of the studies taking place at the mouth of
the Elwha River, where nearshore and delta areas are expected to
receive huge loads of sediment after the Elwha and Glines Canyon
dams come out.
He noted that divers from The U.S. Geological Survey and
Environmental Protection Agency have been fighting strong currents
as they conduct a spacial survey of the plants and animals in the
Gary quoted Sean Sheldrake, dive unit officer for the EPA:
“Just yesterday, we were diving on a beautiful kelp forest with
a variety of fish and plant life, and the hope is through this
reconnection of the Elwha to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, it will
not only continue but thrive.”
“Until now, we’ve focused most of our attention on the effect
this project will have on the river, salmon habitat and salmon
recovery. But with this survey, we will have a more complete and
much clearer picture of the effects on the nearshore ocean
More than 19 million cubic meters of sediment — enough to fill
11 football fields the height of the Empire State Building — has
accumulated behind the Elwha River dams, according to the news
release. That sediment is expected to create turbidity for a time,
but in the long run could be beneficial for a variety of plant and
animal species in area.
As demolition time draws near for the two Elwha River dams, 82
bull trout were recently captured in the middle portion of the
river and moved upstream out of harm’s way.
Scientists used their skills with hook-and-line fishing as well
as the more direct electroshock treatment to take adults and
juveniles from waters in and around Lake Mills at the upper Glines
Canyon Dam, as well as from the section of the river between the
The bull trout averaged 14 inches long, and some were as big as
The fish were held in net pens in Lake Mills for up to 10 days.
They were measured and sampled for genetic characteristics. Radio
transmitters were implanted in 31 fish to track their movements.
Then they were transported by helicopter to two locations upstream,
one near Elkhorn Ranger Station and the other at the mouth of Hayes
The protective action is considered important, because removal
of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams is likely to dislodge an
estimated 24 million cubic yards of sediment that has collected
behind the dams since they were built, according to estimates by
the Bureau of Reclamation. Most of that sediment will come from a
delta at the south end of Lake Mills. Bull trout caught in the
sediment-laden river probably will not do well, researchers
“Using the best available science, we’ve taken steps to protect
the bull trout population and given them immediate access to
high-quality, pristine habitats in the upper river through this
relocation project,” said Sam Brenkman, fisheries biologist for
Olympic National Park.
Even at 50 to 100 ppm, bull trout may stop feeding, suffer from
gill abrasion and experience stress that can reduce their fitness.
Greater levels of turbidity can lead to reduced health and possible
It was assumed for planning purposes that fish remaining in the
river would die. That’s why a priority was placed on maintaining
access to high-quality areas upstream as well as tributaries and
off-channel areas that can serve as refugia from the murky
In addition, the demolition schedule includes “fish windows”
when construction will cease and the river will clear up to a safer
level, allowing for salmon and trout to migrate and spawn. These
fish windows are scheduled for November-December to aid coho and
chum migration into the Elwha; May-June for hatchery out-migration
and steelhead in-migration; and Aug. 1-Sept. 14 for chinook and
pink salmon in-migration.
Bull trout were listed as threatened under the Endangered
Species Act in 1999. Over the past five years, fisheries biologists
have surveyed the river to find out where the fish hang out,
tracked them with radio telemetry and conducted genetic studies to
understand their population dynamics.
Based on this work, researchers estimate the adult bull trout
population at less than 400 fish, less than 3 percent of the entire
Elwha River fish community. Between 60 and 69 percent are found
downstream of Rica Canyon, which lies just above Lake Mills.
Moving the fish upstream will allow them to find the most
suitable habitat following dam removal. A unique characteristic of
bull trout is that some individuals in a given population may
migrate to the ocean, while others stay in freshwater their entire
lives. Some may move into tributaries or lakes, while others prefer
the main river.
Biologists believe bull trout once occupied the entire Elwha
River system before the first dam was built in 1910. Following dam
removal, the landlocked population above the dams will be able to
move all the way downstream. The anadromous population that can’t
get above the Elwha Dam will be able to utilize the entire
The relocation effort fulfills a requirement of a 2000 revision
to the 1996 biological opinion for bull trout by the U.S. Fish and
“We are pleased that we met our objectives,” said Pat Crain,
fisheries biologist for Olympic National Park. “And this project,
designed to protect a threatened species, would not have been
possible without close collaboration among the various
“During two weeks of field work, more than 20 biologists — from
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey,
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Lower Elwha
Klallam Tribe, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, and
Student Conservation Association — assisted with and monitored the
capture and relocation effort.”
The relocation work was completed June 17.
Other projects that should help bull trout include a culvert
replacement on Griff Creek, a middle tributary of the Elwha, and an
evaluation of the competition that occurs with nonnative brook
Like a dark cloud, a fear of politics hangs over a program that
allocates state money for projects that protect fish and wildlife
habitat, build parks and trails and preserve farmland. Check out my
yesterday’s Kitsap Sun, which relates methods of funding to a
Bainbridge Island trails project.
A bit of history is needed to understand the controversy. In
1989, two prominent politicians, Republican Dan Evans and Democrat
Mike Lowry, joined forces to create the Washington Wildlife and
Recreation Coalition. The idea was to attract both government and
private money to the best projects of their kind in the state.
Because of the established criteria, the Legislature has avoided
fights over whether to fund particular projects. Instead, the
Legislature sets the statewide budget for the program, and expert
committees score the projects based on established criteria.
On the 20th anniversary of the program in 2009, an
editorial in the Seattle Times noted that some people doubted
that the political marriage of this “odd couple” — Evans and Lowry
— would last for the long run, but so far it has:
Cleaning up nuclear waste at the Hanford reservation in Eastern
Washington is one of this state’s most critical and vexing
environmental problems. The site is so dangerous to the people and
environment along the Columbia River that every Washington resident
ought to keep an eye on the progress.
“The contaminants out there are so dangerous and so long-lived…
We should be absolutely insisting that the federal government clean
that site up, whatever the cost,” Jay Manning told me three years
Since then, the federal government has poured billions into the
project, including a significant boost of dollars with the economic
stimulus package. Now that effort is being pared back, with a
significant loss of jobs, as Annette Cary reports in the
Converting huge amounts of nuclear waste into a safer form is a
difficult technological and logistical problem, as reporter Craig
Welch points out in a pair Seattle Times stories published
Jan. 22 and
These stories bring you into the meat of the problem. But I have
to say that I was equally impressed by a short piece I heard last
night on KUOW radio. Reporter Anna King helps us understand the
nature of problem from the perspective of people who have made a
career out of cleaning up Hanford’s waste. These grizzled employees
have learned from years of experience, and are now about to turn
over their projects to a new generation. The newcomers will learn
to navigate the minefields of nuclear risk — but they, too, may be
retired before the job is done. Quoting from her piece: Continue reading →
Here’s another battle between species. In
November on Water Ways, I repeated a “dramatic” video showing a
life-or-death fight between a shark and an octopus. The video was
filmed at the Seattle Aquarium and was produced by National
This time, the fight (actually a double billing) is between an
alligator and a python in the Florida Everglades, where Burmese
pythons are not native but have grown to incredible numbers in
recent years. So which animal is the king of the swamp? Left to
their own battles, will the alligator survive or will the python
become the dominant predator?
This video, taken from a
Nature program last year on PBS, shows that individual battles
between an alligator and a python depend on the size of the
The program describes research in which pythons have been found
to eat a wide variety of mammals, birds and reptiles. Because the
invasive pythons could wipe out endangered species, a serious
effort is under way to keep them out of the Florida Keys, where
they have not yet established a comfortable home. The invasion is a
serious, but interesting, challenge. I can recommend the entire
50-minute episode if you have not seen it.
news release from Olympic National Park says the logo was
designed to represent “the magnitude and importance of the Elwha
River Restoration project, which includes the largest dam removal
in U.S. history and will restore the river’s salmon populations
from 3,000 to nearly 400,000.”
“This is an environmental and cultural restoration project that
has already attracted national and international attention – and
it’s right here in our backyard,” remarked Park Superintendent
Studies about the future of the Elwha River, which snakes up
into Olympic National Park, have been going on for more than 20
years. Now that dam removal is about a year away, excitement is
reaching new heights.
I thought that this would be a good time to discuss the
restoration of the river and reservoirs behind the two dams. How
will the natural environment change? What kinds of plants will take
over? And what will be the future of salmon and steelhead that have
hung on in the lower river all these years?
These are subjects I touched on in a series of articles
published in Sunday’s Kitsap Sun. In one piece, I also mentioned
the special cultural significance of the Elwha River to the Lower
Elwha Klallam Tribe.
What I did not cover in this reporting project was the old
debate about whether the two dams should be removed. At $350
million, it’s an expensive project, and some people are convinced
that it is not worthwhile. Costs of protecting water quality for
the city of Port Angeles and replacing the power for the paper mill
are part of the public expense. But these issues were decided long
My intention in these articles was to show what could be
expected as the dams come down and the restoration moves into the
key areas behind the reservoirs.
For general information with links to related studies, visit the
Elwha Watershed Information
Resource, developed by the University of Idaho through a
cooperative agreement with the NOAA Coastal Services Center and in
partnership with the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe, Peninsula College
and Western Washington University.
I’ve written lots of stories about replacing culverts to improve
salmon passage, but a $600,000 grant to the Suquamish Tribe will be
used to remove a culvert and fully open up the estuary at the mouth
of Chico Creek.
The Chico Creek grant was among some $30 million in grants
announced Tuesday by the Environmental Protection Agency as part of
the Puget Sound Estuary Program. I wrote about the grants and
quoted involved officials in a story published in
yesterday’s Kitsap Sun. I’ll cover the other Puget Sound
projects here after talking about the one on Chico Creek.
Most roads that follow a shoreline in the Puget Sound region go
somewhere important, but Kittyhawk Drive is a dead-end. After
crossing Chico Creek, the road serves only three homes, if I recall
After the stream flows through a culvert under Highway 3, it
passes beneath Kittyhawk Drive with enough force to blow out some
of the large rocks planted there to help salmon make it upstream.
Removing the culvert will improve the estuary and help with the
fish-passage problem at that location, but the project needs to
address a change in elevation to get up to the freeway culvert.
The freeway culvert is another obstacle of concern. Local
officials are working with the Washington Department of
Transportation to find a way to replace that freeway culvert with a
bridge. Needless to say, the cost will be enormous.
Another Chico Creek culvert destined for replacement is the one
under Golf Club Road, just upstream from Kitsap Golf and Country
Club. That culvert replacement is part of an extensive restoration
of the stream channel where if flows through the golf course.
Yes, all this sounds like a lot of expense for one salmon
stream, but biologists will tell you that Chico Creek supports the
largest chum salmon run on the Kitsap Peninsula and provides a
decent run of coho and potentially other species. Once the
migrating adult salmon make it through the culverts near the mouth
of the stream, they have good spawning habitat upstream in the
Chico Creek watershed. Tributaries include Kitsap Creek, which
flows out of Kitsap Lake; Wildcat Creek, which flows out of Wildcat
Lake; and Dickerson Creek, which originates within a vast
Exactly when we’ll see the culvert under Kittyhawk Drive removed
remains uncertain. First, a new driveway must be built for
residents on the far side of the culvert. I’m told there is still
some design work to be done before contracts can go out to bid, and
construction must be scheduled around the salmon migrations.